Crescent pyramid and drop-set systems do not promote greater strength gains, muscle hypertrophy, and changes on muscle architecture compared with traditional resistance training in well-trained men
- 1.9k Downloads
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of crescent pyramid (CP) and drop-set (DS) systems with traditional resistance training (TRAD) with equalized total training volume (TTV) on maximum dynamic strength (1-RM), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle (PA), and fascicle length (FL).
Thirty-two volunteers had their legs randomized in a within-subject design in TRAD (3–5 sets of 6–12 repetitions at 75% 1-RM), CP (3–5 sets of 6–15 repetitions at 65–85% 1-RM), and DS (3–5 sets of ~50–75% 1-RM to muscle failure) protocols. Each leg was trained for 12 weeks. Participants had one leg fixed in the TRAD while the contralateral leg performed either CP or DS to allow for TTV equalization.
The CSA increased significantly and similarly for all protocols (TRAD: 7.6%; CP: 7.5%; DS: 7.8%). All protocols showed significant and similar increases in leg press (TRAD = 25.9%; CP = 25.9%; DS = 24.9%) and leg extension 1-RM loads (TRAD = 16.6%; CP = 16.4%; DS = 17.1%). All protocols increased PA (TRAD = 10.6%; CP = 11.0%; DS = 10.3%) and FL (TRAD = 8.9%; CP = 8.9%; DS = 9.1%) similarly.
CP and DS systems do not promote greater gains in strength, muscle hypertrophy and changes in muscle architecture compared to traditional resistance training.
KeywordsResistance training Total training volume Muscle cross-sectional area Muscle strength Pennation angle Fascicle length
Muscle cross-sectional area
Traditional resistance training
Total training volume
This work was supported by São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) Grants (#2015/16090-4 to VA and #2013/21218-4 to CAL) National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) Grant (#406609/2015-2 to CU). We are grateful to 3VS Nutrition—Brazil for donation of Whey Protein. Also, we would like to show appreciation to the participants who participated on this study and to Sayão Futebol Clube—Araras for their support.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed herein were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- ACSM (2011) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1334–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ahtiainen JP, Pakarinen A, Alen M, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen K (2005) Short vs. long rest period between the sets in hypertrophic resistance training: influence on muscle strength, size, and hormonal adaptations in trained men. J Strength Cond Res Natl Strength Cond Assoc 19:572–582. doi: 10.1519/15604.1 Google Scholar
- Baker D, Wilson G, Carlyon R (1994) Periodization: the effect on strength of manipulating volume and intensity. J Strength Cond Res 8:235–242Google Scholar
- Brandenburg JP, Docherty D (2002) The effects of accentuated eccentric loading on strength, muscle hypertrophy, and neural adaptations in trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res Natl Strength Cond Assoc 16:25–32Google Scholar
- Brown LE, Weir JP (2001) ASEP procedures recommendation I: accurate assessment of muscular strength and power. J Exerc Physiol Online 4:1–21Google Scholar
- Charro MA, Aoki MS, Coutts AJ, Araujo RC, Bacurau RF (2010) Hormonal, metabolic and perceptual responses to different resistance training systems. J Sports Med Phys Fit 50:229–234Google Scholar
- Chestnut JL, Docherty D (1999) The effects of 4 and 10 repetition maximum weight-training protocols on neuromuscular adaptations in untrained men. J Strength Cond Res 13:353–359Google Scholar
- Damas F et al. (2016a) Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage. J Physiol 594:5209–5222. doi: 10.1113/jp272472
- Damas F et al. (2016b) Early resistance training-induced increases in muscle cross-sectional area are concomitant with edema-induced muscle swelling. Eur J Appl Physiol 116:49–56. doi: 10.1007/s00421-015-3243-4
- Fleck SJ, Kraemer W (2014) Designing resistance training programs, 4th edn. Human Kinetics Publisher, Colorado SpringsGoogle Scholar
- Gentil P, Fischer B, Martorelli AS, Lima RM, Bottaro M (2015) Effects of equal-volume resistance training performed one or two times a week in upper body muscle size and strength of untrained young men. J Sports Med Phys Fit 55:144–149Google Scholar
- Goto K, Sato K, Takamatsu K (2003) A single set of low intensity resistance exercise immediately following high intensity resistance exercise stimulates growth hormone secretion in men. J Sports Med Phys Fit 43:243–249Google Scholar
- Hartman JW, Tang JE, Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, Lawrence RL, Fullerton AV, Phillips SM (2007) Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters. Am J Clin Nutr 86:373–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lee M, Carroll TJ (2007) Cross education: possible mechanisms for the contralateral effects of unilateral resistance training Sports medicine (Auckland, NZ) 37:1–14Google Scholar
- Mangine GT et al. (2015) The effect of training volume and intensity on improvements in muscular strength and size in resistance-trained men. Physiol Rep 3. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12472
- Ostrowski KJ, Wilson GJ, Weatherby R, Murphy PW, Lyttle AD (1997) The effect of weight training volume on hormonal output and muscular size and function. J Strength Cond Res 11:148–154Google Scholar
- Ribeiro AS, Schoenfeld BJ, Souza MF, Tomeleri CM, Venturini D, Barbosa DS, Cyrino ES (2016) Traditional and pyramidal resistance training systems improve muscle quality and metabolic biomarkers in older women: a randomized crossover study. Exp Gerontol 79:8–15. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2016.03.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ronnestad BR, Egeland W, Kvamme NH, Refsnes PE, Kadi F, Raastad T (2007) Dissimilar effects of one- and three-set strength training on strength and muscle mass gains in upper and lower body in untrained subjects. J Strength Cond Res Natl Strength Cond Assoc 21:157–163 doi:R-19895 [pii]10.1519/R-19895.1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Schoenfeld BJ (2013a) Is there a minimum intensity threshold for resistance training-induced hypertrophic adaptations? Sports Med (Auckland, NZ) 43:1279–1288. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0088-z
- Schoenfeld BJ (2013b) Potential mechanisms for a role of metabolic stress in hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training. Sports Med (Auckland, NZ) 43:179–194. doi: 10.1007/s40279-013-0017-1
- Schoenfeld BJ, Contreras B, Willardson JM, Fontana F, Tiryaki-Sonmez G (2014a) Muscle activation during low- versus high-load resistance training in well-trained men. Eur J Appl Physiol 114:2491–2497 doi: 10.1007/s00421-014-2976-9
- Schoenfeld BJ, Ratamess NA, Peterson MD, Contreras B, Sonmez GT, Alvar BA (2014b) Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men J Strength Cond Res Natl Strength Cond Assoc 28:2909–2918. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0000000000000480
- Schoenfeld BJ, Contreras B, Ogborn D, Galpin A, Krieger J, Sonmez GT (2016a) Effects of varied versus constant loading zones on muscular adaptations in trained men. Int J Sports Med 37:442–447. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1569369
- Schoenfeld BJ, Ogborn D, Krieger JW (2016b) Dose-response relationship between weekly resistance training volume and increases in muscle mass: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Sports Sci, 1–10. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1210197
- Vechin FC et al. (2015) Comparisons between low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction and high-intensity resistance training on quadriceps muscle mass and strength in elderly. J Strength Cond Res Natl Strength Cond Assoc 29:1071–1076. doi: 10.1519/jsc.0000000000000703 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zinovieff AN (1951) Heavy-resistance exercises the “Oxford technique”. Br J Phys Med Incl Appl Ind 14:129–132Google Scholar