European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 116, Issue 11–12, pp 2367–2374 | Cite as

Resistance training intensity and volume affect changes in rate of force development in resistance-trained men

  • Gerald T. MangineEmail author
  • Jay R. Hoffman
  • Ran Wang
  • Adam M. Gonzalez
  • Jeremy R. Townsend
  • Adam J. Wells
  • Adam R. Jajtner
  • Kyle S. Beyer
  • Carleigh H. Boone
  • Amelia A. Miramonti
  • Michael B. LaMonica
  • David H. Fukuda
  • Nicholas A. Ratamess
  • Jeffrey R. Stout
Original Article



To compare the effects of two different resistance training programs, high intensity (INT) and high volume (VOL), on changes in isometric force (FRC), rate of force development (RFD), and barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing.


Twenty-nine resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either the INT (n = 15, 3–5 RM, 3-min rest interval) or VOL (n = 14, 10–12 RM, 1-min rest interval) training group for 8 weeks. All participants completed a 2-week preparatory phase prior to randomization. Measures of barbell velocity, FRC, and RFD were performed before (PRE) and following (POST) the 8-week training program. Barbell velocity was determined during one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing of the squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises. The isometric mid-thigh pull was used to assess FRC and RFD at specific time bands ranging from 0 to 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 ms.


Analysis of covariance revealed significant (p < 0.05) group differences in peak FRC, FRC at 30–200 ms, and RFD at 50–90 ms. Significant (p < 0.05) changes in INT but not VOL in peak FRC (INT: 9.2 ± 13.8 %; VOL: −4.3 ± 10.2 %), FRC at 30–200 ms (INT: 12.5–15.8 %; VOL: −1.0 to −4.3 %), and RFD at 50 ms (INT: 78.0 ± 163 %; VOL: −4.1 ± 49.6 %) were observed. A trend (p = 0.052) was observed for RFD at 90 ms (INT: 58.5 ± 115 %; VOL: −3.5 ± 40.1 %). No group differences were observed for the observed changes in barbell velocity.


Results indicate that INT is more advantageous than VOL for improving FRC and RFD, while changes in barbell velocity during dynamic strength testing are similarly improved by both protocols in resistance-trained men.


Rate of force development Bench press velocity Back squat velocity Isometric strength 



Analysis of covariance


Area under the curve


Back squat


Bench press




High-intensity, low-volume training group


High-volume, moderate-intensity training group


Human-Performance Laboratory


Intraclass correlation coefficient


Minimal difference


One-repetition maximum






Rate of force development


Standard error of the measurement


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald T. Mangine
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jay R. Hoffman
    • 2
  • Ran Wang
    • 2
  • Adam M. Gonzalez
    • 3
  • Jeremy R. Townsend
    • 2
  • Adam J. Wells
    • 2
  • Adam R. Jajtner
    • 2
  • Kyle S. Beyer
    • 2
  • Carleigh H. Boone
    • 2
  • Amelia A. Miramonti
    • 2
  • Michael B. LaMonica
    • 2
  • David H. Fukuda
    • 2
  • Nicholas A. Ratamess
    • 4
  • Jeffrey R. Stout
    • 2
  1. 1.Exercise Science and Sport ManagementKennesaw State UniversityKennesawGeorgia
  2. 2.Institute of Exercise Physiology and WellnessUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Health ProfessionsHofstra UniversityHempsteadUSA
  4. 4.Health and Exercise ScienceThe College of New JerseyEwingUSA

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