European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 116, Issue 9, pp 1819–1827 | Cite as

Maximal workload but not peak oxygen uptake is decreased during immersed incremental exercise at cooler temperatures

  • Tomomi Fujimoto
  • Yosuke Sasaki
  • Hitoshi Wakabayashi
  • Yasuo Sengoku
  • Shozo Tsubakimoto
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigated the effects of water temperature on cardiorespiratory responses and exercise performance during immersed incremental cycle exercise until exhaustion.

Methods

Ten healthy young men performed incremental cycle exercise on a water cycle ergometer at water temperatures (Tw) of 18, 26 and 34 °C. Workload was initially set at 60 W and was increased by 20 W every 2 min for the first four levels and then by 10 W every minute until the subject could no longer continue.

Results

During submaximal exercise (60–120 W), \(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}\) was greater at Tw = 18 °C than at 26 or 34 °C. Maximal workload was lower at Tw = 18 °C than at 26 or 34 °C [Tw = 18 °C: 138 ± 16 (SD) W, Tw = 26 °C: 157 ± 16 W, Tw = 34 °C: 156 ± 18 W], whereas \(\dot{V}\)O2peak did not differ among the three temperatures [Tw = 18 °C: 3156 ± 364 (SD) ml min−1, Tw = 26 °C: 3270 ± 344 ml min−1, Tw = 34 °C: 3281 ± 268 ml min−1]. Minute ventilation (\(\dot{V}_{\text{E}}\)) and tidal volume (VT) during submaximal exercise were higher at Tw = 18 °C than at 26 or 34 °C, while respiratory frequency (fR) did not differ with respect to Tw.

Conclusion

Peak workload during immersed incremental cycle exercise is lower in cold water (18 °C) due to the higher \(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}\) during submaximal exercise, while the greater \(\dot{V}_{\text{E}}\) in cold water was due to a larger VT.

Keywords

Cold water \(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}\) Exercise performance Ventilatory responses 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

fR

Respiratory frequency

HR

Heart rate

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

Tes

Esophageal temperature

Tm

Muscle temperature

Tre

Rectal temperature

Tsk

Skin temperature

Tw

Water temperature(s)

\(\dot{V}{\text{CO}}_{2}\)

Carbon dioxide elimination

\(\dot{V}_{\text{E}}\)

Minute ventilation

\(\dot{V}_{\text{I}}\)

Ventilatory volume

\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{2}\)

Oxygen uptake

\(\dot{V}\)O2peak

Peak oxygen uptake

VT

Tidal volume

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the all of the subjects for their participation in this study. We also greatly appreciate the Dr. William Goldman for English editing and critical comments. This study was supported by grants from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

References

  1. Blomstrand E, Kaijser L, Martinsson A, Bergh U, Ekblom B (1986) Temperature-induced changes in metabolic and hormonal responses to intensive dynamic exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 127:477–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Borg G (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:377–381PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Costill DL, Cahill PJ, Eddy D (1967) Metabolic responses to submaximal exercise in three water temperatures. J Appl Physiol 22:628–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Craig AB Jr, Dvorak M (1966) Thermal regulation during water immersion. J Appl Physiol 21:1577–1585Google Scholar
  5. Craig AB Jr, Dvorak M (1968) Thermal regulation of man exercising during water immersion. J Appl Physiol 25:28–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Datta A, Tipton MJ (2006) Respiratory responses to cold water immersion: neural pathways, interactions, and clinical consequences awake and asleep. J Appl Physiol 100:2057–2064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dressendorfer RH, Morlock JF, Baker DG, Hong SK (1976) Effects of head-out water immersion on cardiorespiratory responses to maximal cycling exercise. Undersea Biomed Res 3:177–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gagnon DD, Rintamäki H, Gagnon SS, Oksa J, Porvari K, Cheung SS, Herzig KH, Kyröläinen H (2014) Fuel selection during short-term submaximal treadmill exercise in the cold is not affected by pre-exercise low-intensity shivering. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 39:282–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gallagher CG, Brown E, Younes M (1987) Breathing pattern during maximal exercise and during submaximal exercise with hypercapnia. J Appl Physiol 63:238–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Holmér I, Bergh U (1974) Metabolic and thermal response to swimming in water at varying temperatures. J Appl Physiol 37:702–705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hong SI, Nadel ER (1979) Thermogenic control during exercise in a cold environment. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 47:1084–1089PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Keatinge WR, Evans M (1961) The respiratory and cardiovascular response to immersion in cold and warm water. Q J Exp Physiol Cogn Med Sci 46:83–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Lloyd A, Hodder S, Havenith G (2015) The interaction between peripheral and central fatigue at different muscle temperatures during sustained isometric contractions. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 309:410–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McArdle WD, Magel JR, Lesmes GR, Pechar GS (1976) Metabolic and cardiovascular adjustment to work in air and water at 18, 25, and 33 degrees C. J Appl Physiol 40:85–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. McArdle WD, Magel JR, Gergley TJ, Spina RJ, Toner MM (1984a) Thermal adjustment to cold-water exposure in resting men and women. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 56:1565–1571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. McArdle WD, Magel JR, Spina RJ, Gergley TJ, Toner MM (1984b) Thermal adjustment to cold-water exposure in exercising men and women. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 56:1572–1577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. McArdle WD, Toner MM, Magel JR, Spina RJ, Pandolf KB (1992) Thermal responses of men and women during cold-water immersion: influence of exercise intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 65:265–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mekjavić IB, Eiken O (2006) Contribution of thermal and nonthermal factors to the regulation of body temperature in humans. J Appl Physiol 100:2065–2072CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Nadel ER, Holmér I, Bergh U, Astrand PO, Stolwijk JA (1974) Energy exchanges of swimming man. J Appl Physiol 36:465–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Nakajima Y, Takamata A, Ito T, Sessler DI, Kitamura Y, Shimosato G, Tanigushi S, Matsuyama H, Tanaka Y, Mizobe T (2002) Upright posture reduces thermogenesis and augments core hypothermia. Anesth Analg 94:1641–1651Google Scholar
  21. Ramanathan NL (1964) A new weighting system for mean surface temperature of the human body. J Appl Physiol 19:531–533PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Rennie DW, Park A, Veicsteinas A, Pendergast D (1980) Metabolic and circulatory adaptation to cold water stress. In: Cerretelli P, Whipp BJ (eds) Exercise bioenergetics and gas exchange. North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, pp 315–321Google Scholar
  23. Takano N (1988) Effects of pedal rate on respiratory responses to incremental bicycle work. J Physiol 396:389–397CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Tipton MJ (1989) The initial responses to cold-water immersion in man. Clin Sci (Lond) 77:581–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Tipton M, Bradford C (2014) Moving in extreme environments: open water swimming in cold and warm water. Extrem Physiol Med 3:12CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Toner MM, McArdle WD (1996) Human thermoregulatory responses to acute cold stress with special reference to water immersion. In: Fregly MJ, Blatteis CM (eds) Handbook of physiology, section 4, environmental physiology. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 379–397Google Scholar
  27. Wagner JA, Horvath SM (1985) Influences of age and gender on human thermoregulatory responses to cold exposures. J Appl Physiol 58:180–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Whipp BJ (1987) Principles of exercise testing and interpretation. Lea & Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  29. Wenger CB, Roberts MF (1980) Control of forearm venous volume during exercise and body heating. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 48:114–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Whipp BJ, Davis JA, Wasserman K (1989) Ventilatory control of the ‘isocapnic buffering’ region in rapidly-incremental exercise. Respir Physiol 76:357–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomomi Fujimoto
    • 1
  • Yosuke Sasaki
    • 1
  • Hitoshi Wakabayashi
    • 2
  • Yasuo Sengoku
    • 1
  • Shozo Tsubakimoto
    • 1
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Health and Sport SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Division of Human Environmental Systems, Faculty of EngineeringHokkaido UniversityHokkaidoJapan

Personalised recommendations