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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 116, Issue 9, pp 1841–1853 | Cite as

Carbohydrate supplementation stabilises plasma sodium during training with high intensity

  • M. Schrader
  • B. Treff
  • T. Sandholtet
  • N. Maassen
  • V. Shushakov
  • J. Kaesebieter
  • M. Maassen
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Investigations of the effect of beverages containing carbohydrates, only, on the sodium and fluid balance during intermittent exercise of high intensity are rare. Therefore, we compared the effects of water and carbohydrate supplementation on plasma, blood volume, and electrolyte shifts during intermittent exercise.

Methods

Ten male subjects performed an intermittent exercise test twice. In one trial, tap water (4 ml/kg/15 min) was consumed (Plac trial). In the other trial, the same amount of water supplemented with maltodextrin to achieve a 9.1 % carbohydrate solution (CHO trial) was ingested. Training schedule: warm-up at 50 % for 15 min. Afterwards, power changed between 100 % of the maximum power from a previous incremental test minus 10 and 10 W for each 30 s. Venous blood was sampled to measure electrolytes, osmolality, [protein], hct, [Lactate], [glucose], [Hb] and catecholamines. Hydration status was evaluated by BIA before and after exercise.

Results

After beverage ingestion [glucose] was significantly higher in CHO until the end of the trial. Starting with similar resting values, osmolality increased significantly more during CHO (p = 0.002). PV decreased by 5 % under both conditions, but recovered partly during exercise under Plac (p = 0.002). [Na+] and [Cl] decreased with Plac during exercise (both p < 0.001) but remained constant during exercise with CHO.

Conclusions

Sole carbohydrate supplementation seems to stabilise plasma [Na+]. This cannot be explained simply by a cotransport of glucose and [Na+], because that should lead to a recovery of the blood and plasma volume under CHO. In contrast, this was found during exercise with Plac.

Keywords

Intermittent exercise Carbohydrate supplementation Hyponatremia Hydration status 

Abbreviations

[…]cap

Capillary concentration of…

[…]v

Venous concentration of…

A

Adrenaline

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

BIA

Bio impedance analysis

BV

Blood volume

CET

Continuous endurance training

CHO

Carbohydrate

ECW

Extracellular water

HIHVT

High-intensity high-volume training

HIIT

High-intensity interval training

HIT

High-intensity training

ICW

Intracellular water

Kg/bw

Kilogram/body weight

Min

Minute

NA

Noradrenaline

Plac

Placebo = water

PV

Plasma volume

TBW

Total body water

VE

Ventilation

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Hannelore Konrad for her invaluable technical support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report that there were no conflicts of interest during this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Schrader
    • 1
  • B. Treff
    • 1
  • T. Sandholtet
    • 1
  • N. Maassen
    • 1
    • 3
  • V. Shushakov
    • 1
    • 3
  • J. Kaesebieter
    • 2
  • M. Maassen
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Sports MedicineHannover Medical SchoolHannoverGermany
  2. 2.Data InputPöckingGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Sports ScienceLeibniz University HannoverHannoverGermany

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