European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 116, Issue 9, pp 1703–1713 | Cite as

Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles

  • Kota Tayashiki
  • Sumiaki Maeo
  • Seiji Usui
  • Naokazu Miyamoto
  • Hiroaki KanehisaEmail author
Original Article



It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this.


Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined.


After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG.


The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.


Stabilization exercise Abdominal co-contraction Electromyogram Abdominal muscle thickness Intra-abdominal pressure 



An average value relative to integration time of integrated electromyogram during a task


Control group


Cross-sectional area




Erector spinae


Gluteus maximus


Intra-abdominal pressure


Maximal IAP during abdominal bracing


Oblique external


Oblique internal


Rectus abdominis


Rectus femoris


Training group


Transversus abdominis


Vastus lateralis



This research was supported by the JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26350748 [Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kota Tayashiki
    • 1
  • Sumiaki Maeo
    • 2
    • 3
  • Seiji Usui
    • 1
  • Naokazu Miyamoto
    • 1
  • Hiroaki Kanehisa
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Sports and Life ScienceNational Institute of Fitness and Sports in KanoyaKanoyaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Sport SciencesWaseda UniversityTokorozawaJapan
  3. 3.Japan Society for the Promotion of ScienceTokyoJapan

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