European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 116, Issue 2, pp 281–290 | Cite as

Determination of the maximum rate of eccrine sweat glands’ ion reabsorption using the galvanic skin conductance to local sweat rate relationship

  • Tatsuro Amano
  • Nicola Gerrett
  • Yoshimitsu Inoue
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
  • George Havenith
  • Narihiko Kondo
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the present study was to develop and describe a simple method to evaluate the rate of ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in human using the measurement of galvanic skin conductance (GSC) and local sweating rate (SR). This purpose was investigated by comparing the SR threshold for increasing GSC with following two criteria of sweat ion reabsorption in earlier studies such as (1) the SR threshold for increasing sweat ion was at approximately 0.2–0.5 mg/cm2/min and (2) exercise heat acclimation improved the sweat ion reabsorption ability and would increase the criteria 1.

Methods

Seven healthy non-heat-acclimated male subjects received passive heat treatment both before and after 7 days of cycling in hot conditions (50 % maximum oxygen uptake, 60 min/day, ambient temperature 32 °C, and 50 % relative humidity).

Results

Subjects became partially heat-acclimated, as evidenced by the decreased end-exercise heart rate (p < 0.01), rate of perceived exhaustion (p < 0.01), and oesophageal temperature (p = 0.07), without alterations in whole-body sweat loss, from the first to the last day of training. As hypothesized, we confirmed that the SR threshold for increasing GSC was near the predicted SR during passive heating before exercise heat acclimation, and increased significantly after training (0.19 ± 0.09–0.32 ± 0.10 mg/cm2/min, p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The reproducibility of sweat ion reabsorption by the eccrine glands in the present study suggests that the relationship between GSC and SR can serve as a new index for assessing the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption of eccrine sweat glands in humans.

Keywords

Thermoregulation Electrodermal response Exercise training Ventilated capsule method Index of sweated ion reabsorption 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

BWR

Body weight reduction

GSC

Galvanic skin conductance

HR

Heart rate

MAP

Mean arterial blood pressure

NaCl

Sodium chloride

RPE

Rate of perceived exhaustion

SR

Sweat rate

Tb

Mean body temperature

Tes

Oesophageal temperature

\(\overline{T}_{\text{sk}}\)

Mean skin temperature

\({{\dot{\text{V}}}\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}\)

Maximum oxygen uptake

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank our volunteer subjects for participating in this study. NK is supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 23300231) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. TA is supported by a JSPS fellowship (No. 244185) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. TN is supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (no. 25242061) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. Allan JR, Wilson CG (1971) Influence of acclimatization on sweat sodium concentration. J Appl Physiol 30(5):708–712PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Araki T, Matsushita K, Umeno K, Tsujino A, Toda Y (1981) Effect of physical training on exercise-induced sweating in women. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 51(6):1526–1532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Boisvert P, Candas V (1994) Validity of the Wescor’s sweat conductivity analyzer for the assessment of sweat electrolyte concentrations. Eur J Appl Physiol 69(2):176–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borg GA (1982) Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14(5):377–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boucsein W, Fowles DC, Grimnes S, Ben-Shakhar G, Roth WT, Dawson ME, Filion DL (2012) Publication recommendations for electrodermal measurements. Psychophysiology 49(8):1017–1034. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2012.01384.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bulmer MG, Forwell GD (1956) The concentration of sodium in thermal sweat. J Physiol 132(1):115–122PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buono MJ, Ball KD, Kolkhorst FW (2007) Sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationship in humans. J Appl Physiol 103(3):990–994. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00015.2007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Buono MJ, Claros R, Deboer T, Wong J (2008) Na + secretion rate increases proportionally more than the Na + reabsorption rate with increases in sweat rate. J Appl Physiol 105(4):1044–1048. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.90503.2008 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheuvront SN, Bearden SE, Kenefick RW, Ely BR, Degroot DW, Sawka MN, Montain SJ (2009) A simple and valid method to determine thermoregulatory sweating threshold and sensitivity. J Appl Physiol 107(1):69–75. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00250.2009 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Darrow CW (1964) The rationale for treating the change in galvanic skin response as a change in conductance. Psychophysiology 1:31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eichna LW, Park CR, Nelson N, Horvath SM, Palmes ED (1950) Thermal regulation during acclimatization in a hot, dry (desert type) environment. Am J Physiol 163(3):585–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fowles DC (1986) The eccrine system and electrodermal activity. In: Coles GH, Donchin E, Porges SW (eds) Psychophysiology: systems, processes, and applications. Guilford Press, New York, pp 51–96Google Scholar
  13. Gerrett N, Redortier B, Voelcker T, Havenith G (2013) A comparison of galvanic skin conductance and skin wettedness as indicators of thermal discomfort during moderate and high metabolic rates. J Therm Bio 38:530–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gisolfi CV, Cohen JS (1979) Relationships among training, heat acclimation, and heat tolerance in men and women: the controversy revisited. Med Sci Sports 11(1):56–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gutrecht JA (1994) Sympathetic skin response. J Clin Neurophysiol 11(5):519–524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamouti N, Del Coso J, Ortega JF, Mora-Rodriguez R (2011) Sweat sodium concentration during exercise in the heat in aerobically trained and untrained humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 111(11):2873–2881. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-1911-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hardy JD, DuBois EF (1938) Basal metabolism, radiation, convection and vaporization at temperature of 22 to 35 degree C. J Nutr 15:477–497Google Scholar
  18. Inoue Y, Nakao M, Ishizashi H, Tsujita J, Araki T (1998) Regional differences in the Na + reabsorption of sweat glands. Appl Human Sci 17(5):219–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kuno Y (1956) Human perspiration. Charles C. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  20. Machado-Moreira CA, Taylor NA (2012) Psychological sweating from glabrous and nonglabrous skin surfaces under thermoneutral conditions. Psychophysiology 49(3):369–374. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2011.01309.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mitchell D, Senay LC, Wyndham CH, van Rensburg AJ, Rogers GG, Strydom NB (1976) Acclimatization in a hot, humid environment: energy exchange, body temperature, and sweating. J Appl Physiol 40(5):768–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Sato K, Kang WH, Saga K, Sato KT (1989) Biology of sweat glands and their disorders. I. Normal sweat gland function. J Am Acad Dermatol 20(4):537–563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shamsuddin AK, Kuwahara T, Oue A, Nomura C, Koga S, Inoue Y, Kondo N (2005a) Effect of skin temperature on the ion reabsorption capacity of sweat glands during exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 94(4):442–447. doi: 10.1007/s00421-005-1354-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shamsuddin AK, Yanagimoto S, Kuwahara T, Zhang Y, Nomura C, Kondo N (2005b) Changes in the index of sweat ion concentration with increasing sweat during passive heat stress in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 94(3):292–297. doi: 10.1007/s00421-005-1314-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Stolwijk JA, Hardy JD (1966) Partitional calorimetric studies of responses of man to thermal transients. J Appl Physiol 21(3):967–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Thomas PE, Korr IM (1957) Relationship between sweat gland activity and electrical resistance of the skin. J Appl Physiol 10(3):505–510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Verde T, Shephard RJ, Corey P, Moore R (1982) Sweat composition in exercise and in heat. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 53(6):1540–1545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Vetrugno R, Liguori R, Cortelli P, Montagna P (2003) Sympathetic skin response: basic mechanisms and clinical applications. Clin Auton Res 13(4):256–270. doi: 10.1007/s10286-003-0107-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang GH (1957) The galvanic skin reflex; a review of old and recent works from a physiologic point of view. Am J Phys Med 36(5):295–320 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Wyndham CH, Rogers GG, Senay LC, Mitchell D (1976) Acclimization in a hot, humid environment: cardiovascular adjustments. J Appl Physiol 40(5):779–785PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatsuro Amano
    • 1
  • Nicola Gerrett
    • 2
    • 3
  • Yoshimitsu Inoue
    • 4
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
    • 5
  • George Havenith
    • 2
  • Narihiko Kondo
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Applied Human Physiology, Graduate School of Human Development and EnvironmentKobe UniversityKobeJapan
  2. 2.Environmental Ergonomics Research CentreLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK
  3. 3.Institute of Sport and Exercise ScienceUniversity of WorcesterWorcesterUK
  4. 4.Laboratory for Human Performance ResearchOsaka International UniversityOsakaJapan
  5. 5.Institute of Health and Sports ScienceUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations