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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 115, Issue 12, pp 2471–2480 | Cite as

Effects of exercise intensity and occlusion pressure after 12 weeks of resistance training with blood-flow restriction

  • Manoel E. Lixandrão
  • Carlos Ugrinowitsch
  • Gilberto Laurentino
  • Cleiton A. Libardi
  • André Y. Aihara
  • Fabiano N. Cardoso
  • Valmor Tricoli
  • Hamilton Roschel
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

We compared the effects of different protocols of blood-flow restriction training (BFRT) with different occlusion pressures and/or exercise intensities on muscle mass and strength. We also compared BFRT protocols with conventional high-intensity resistance training (RT).

Methods

Twenty-six subjects had each leg allocated to two of five protocols. BFRT protocols were performed at either 20 or 40 % 1-RM with either 40 or 80 % occlusion pressure: BFRT20/40, BFRT20/80, BFRT40/40, and BFRT40/80. Conventional RT was performed at 80 % 1-RM (RT80) without blood-flow restriction. Maximum dynamic strength (1-RM) and quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks.

Results

Regarding muscle mass, increasing occlusion pressure was effective only at very low intensity (BFRT20/40 0.78 % vs. BFRT20/80 3.22 %). No additional increase was observed at higher intensities (BFRT40/40 4.45 % vs. BFRT40/80 5.30 %), with no difference between the latter protocols and RT80 (5.90 %). Exercise intensity played a role in CSA when comparing groups with similar occlusion pressure. Muscle strength was similarly increased among BFRT groups (~12.10 %) but to a lesser extent than RT80 (21.60 %).

Conclusion

In conclusion, BFRT protocols benefit from higher occlusion pressure (80 %) when exercising at very low intensities. Conversely, occlusion pressure seems secondary to exercise intensity in more intense (40 % 1-RM) BFRT protocols. Finally, when considering muscle strength, BFRT protocols seem less effective than high-intensity RT.

Keywords

Occlusion training Strength training Muscle hypertrophy Occlusion pressure Exercise intensity Muscle strength 

Abbreviations

1-RM

One-repetition maximum dynamic strength

BFRT

Blood-flow restriction training

CSA

Cross-sectional area

ES

Effect size

ESCLdiff

Confidence intervals of the effect size

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging

RT

Resistance training

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)—process number: 2014/05320-6 and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for financial support. HR, CU and VT are supported by CNPq (307023/2014-1, 304205/2011-7 and 310823/2013-7, respectively).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manoel E. Lixandrão
    • 1
  • Carlos Ugrinowitsch
    • 1
  • Gilberto Laurentino
    • 1
  • Cleiton A. Libardi
    • 2
  • André Y. Aihara
    • 3
  • Fabiano N. Cardoso
    • 3
  • Valmor Tricoli
    • 1
  • Hamilton Roschel
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Physical Education and SportUniversity of São PauloSão PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physical Education, Center of Biological and Health SciencesFederal University of São CarlosSão CarlosBrazil
  3. 3.Diagnósticos das Américas S/A (DASA)São PauloBrazil

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