Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 115, Issue 12, pp 2531–2542 | Cite as

The reliability, validity and sensitivity of a novel soccer-specific reactive repeated-sprint test (RRST)

  • Michele Di Mascio
  • Jack Ade
  • Paul S. Bradley
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to determine the reliability, validity and sensitivity of a reactive repeated-sprint test (RRST).

Methods

Elite (n = 72) and sub-elite male (n = 87) and elite female soccer players (n = 12) completed the RRST at set times during a season. Total distance timed was 30 m and the RRST performance measure was the total time (s) across eight repetitions. Competitive match running performance was measured using GPS and high-intensity running quantified (≥19.8 km h−1).

Results

Test–retest coefficient of variation in elite U16 and sub-elite U19 players was 0.71 and 0.84 %, respectively. Elite U18 players’ RRST performances were better (P < 0.01) than elite U16, sub-elite U16, U18, U19 and elite senior female players (58.25 ± 1.34 vs 59.97 ± 1.64, 61.42 ± 2.25, 61.66 ± 1.70, 61.02 ± 2.31 and 63.88 ± 1.46 s; ES 0.6–1.9). For elite U18 players, RRST performances for central defenders (59.84 ± 1.35 s) were lower (P < 0.05) than full backs (57.85 ± 0.77 s), but not attackers (58.17 ± 1.73 s) or central and wide midfielders (58.55 ± 1.08 and 58.58 ± 1.89 s; ES 0.7–1.4). Elite U16 players demonstrated lower (P < 0.01) RRST performances during the preparation period versus the start, middle and end of season periods (61.13 ± 1.53 vs 59.51 ± 1.39, 59.25 ± 1.42 and 59.20 ± 1.57 s; ES 1.0–1.1). Very large magnitude correlations (P < 0.01) were observed between RRST performance and high-intensity running in the most intense 5-min period of a match for both elite and sub-elite U18 players (r = −0.71 and −0.74), with the best time of the RRST also correlating with the arrowhead agility test for elite U16 and U18 players (r = 0.84 and 0.75).

Conclusion

The data demonstrate that the RRST is a reliable and valid test that distinguishes between performance across standard, position and seasonal period.

Keywords

Football High-intensity Intense periods Fitness testing 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

BST

Bangsbo sprint test

RRSTbest

Best time

BLa

Blood lactate concentration

CV

Coefficient of variation

ES

Effect size

GPS

Global positioning system

HR

Heart rate

HRmax

Heart rate maximum

HDOP

Horizontal dilution of precision

MEMS

Microelectromechanical system

RRST

Reactive repeated-sprint test

RSA

Repeated sprint ability

SWC

Smallest worthwhile change

TE

Typical error of measurement

Yo–Yo IR1

Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test level 1

Yo–Yo IE2

Yo–Yo intermittent endurance test level 2

Notes

Acknowledgments

The University of Sunderland and Sunderland College for their help in funding Michele Di Mascio’s PhD.

References

  1. Abrantas C, Macas V, Sampaio J (2004) Variation in football players’ sprint test performance across different ages and levels of competition. J Sports Sci Med (YSSI) 3:44–49Google Scholar
  2. Akenhead R, Hayes PR, Thompson KG, French D (2013) Diminutions of acceleration and deceleration output during professional football match play. J Sci Med Sport 16(6):556–561CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson G, Nevill AM (1998) Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Med 26:217–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aziz AR, Mukherjee S, Chia MYH, The KC (2008) Validity of the running repeated sprint ability test among playing positions and level of competitiveness in trained soccer players. Int J Sports Med 29:833–838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker J, Ramsbottom R, Hazeldine R (1993) Maximal shuttle running over 40 m as a measure of anaerobic performance. Br J Sport Med 27:228–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balsom P (1994) Evaluation of physical performance. In: Ekblom B (ed) Football (soccer). Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 102–123Google Scholar
  7. Bangsbo J (1994) Fitness training in football. HO Storm, Bagsvaerd, pp 1–336Google Scholar
  8. Bangsbo J, Lindquist F (1992) Comparison of various exercise tests with endurance performance during soccer in professional players. Int J Sports Med 13:125–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes C, Archer DT, Hogg B, Bush M, Bradley PS (2014) The evolution of physical and technical performance parameters in the English Premier League. Int J Sports Med 35(19):1095–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Batterham AM, Hopkins WG (2006) Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 1:50–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bishop D, Spencer M, Duffield R, Lawrence S (2001) The validity of a repeated sprint ability test. J Sci Med Sport 4:19–29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bloomfield J, Polman R, O’Donoghue P (2007) Physical demands of different positions in FA Premier League soccer. J Sports Sci Med 6:63–70PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradley PS, Sheldon W, Wooster B, Olsen PD, Boanas P, Krustrup P (2009) High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches. J Sports Sci 27:159–168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bradley PS, Di Mascio M, Peart D, Olsen P, Sheldon B (2010) High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels. J Strength Cond Res 24(9):2343–2351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradley PS, Mohr M, Bendiksen M, Randers MB, Flindt M, Barnes C, Hood P, Gomez A, Andersen JL, Di Mascio M, Bangsbo J, Krustrup P (2011) Sub-maximal and maximal Yo–Yo intermittent endurance test level 2: heart rate response, reproducibility and application to elite soccer. Eur J Appl Physiol 111:969–978CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradley PS, Carling C, Gomez Diaz A, Hood P, Barnes C, Ade J, Boddy M, Krustrup P, Mohr M (2013) Match performance and physical capacity of players in the top three competitive standards of English professional soccer. Hum Mov Sci 32(4):808–821CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bush M, Barnes C, Archer DT, Hogg B, Bradley PS (2015) Evolution of match performance parameters for various playing positions in the English Premier League. Hum Mov Sci 39:1–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Carling C (2010) Analysis of physical activity profiles when running with the ball in a professional soccer team. J Sports Sci 28:319–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Carling C, Le Gall F, Dupont G (2012) Analysis of repeated high-intensity running performance in professional soccer. J Sports Sci 30(4):325–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaouachi A, Manzi V, del Wong P, Chaalali A, Laurencelle L, Chamari K, Castagna C (2010) Intermittent endurance and repeated sprint ability in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 24:2663–2669CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Di Mascio M, Bradley PS (2013) Evaluation of the most intense high-intensity running periods in English FA Premier League soccer matches. J Strength Cond Res 27:909–915CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Di Salvo V, Baron R, Tschan H, Calderon Montero FJ, Bachl N, Pigozzi F (2007) Performance characteristics according to playing position in elite soccer. Int J Sports Med 28:222–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Di Salvo V, Gregson W, Atkinson G, Tordoff P, Drust B (2009) Analysis of high intensity activity in Premier League soccer. Int J Sports Med 30:205–212CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Di Salvo V, Pigozzi F, Gonzalez-Haro C, Laughlin MS, De Witt JK (2013) Match performance comparison in top English soccer leagues. Int J Sports Med 34(6):526–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fitzsimmons M, Dawson B, Ward D, Wilkinson A (1993) Cycling and running tests of repeated sprint ability. Aust J Sci Med Sport 25:82–87Google Scholar
  26. Gabbett TJ (2010) The development of a test of repeated-sprint ability for elite women’s soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 24:1191–1194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Getchell G (1979) Physical fitness a way of life, 2nd edn. John Wiley and Sons, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  28. Girard O, Mendez-Villanueva A, Bishop D (2011) Repeated-sprint ability—part 1: factors contributing to fatigue. Sports Med 41:673–694CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gregson W, Drust B, Atkinson G (2010) Match-to-match variability of high-speed activities in premier league soccer. Int J Sports Med 31:237–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hopkins WG (2000) Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med 30:1–15CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hopkins WG (2004) How to interpret changes in an athletic performance test. Sportscience 8:1–7Google Scholar
  32. Hopkins WG, Schabort EJ, Hawley JA (2001) Reliability of power in physical performance tests. Sports Med 31:211–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J (2009) Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:3–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Marcora SM (2005) Physiological assessment of aerobic training in soccer. J Sports Sci 23:583–592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Castagna C, Bishop D, Ferrari Bravo D, Tibaudi A, Wisloff U (2008) Validity of a repeated-sprint test for football. Int J Sports Med 29:899–905CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, Benche J, Kjaer M, Bangsbo J (2006) Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1165–1174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Little T, Williams AG (2005) Specificity of acceleration, maximum speed, and agility in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 19:76–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J (2003) Match performance of high standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sports Sci 21:519–528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Mujika I, Padilla S, Ibanez J, Izquierdo M, Gorostiaga E (2000) Creatine supplementation and sprint performance in soccer players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:518–525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Oliver JL (2009) Is a fatigue index a worthwhile measure of repeated sprint ability? J Sci Med Sport 12:20–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Paul DJ, Bradley PS, Nassis GP (2015) Factors affecting match running performance of elite soccer players: shedding some light on the complexity. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 10(4):516–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Psotta R, Blahus P, Cochrane DJ, Martin AJ (2005) The assessment of an intermittent high intensity running test. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 45:248–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Puga N, Ramos J, Agostinho J, Lomba I, Costa O, De Dreitas F (1993) Physical profile of a first division Portuguese professional soccer team. In: Reilly T, Clarys J, Stibbe A (eds) Science and football II. E & FN Spon, London, pp 40–42Google Scholar
  44. Rampinini E, Bishop D, Marcora SM, Ferrari Bravo D, Sassi R, Impellizzeri FM (2007) Validity of simple field tests as indicators of match-related physical performance in top-level professional soccer players. Int J Sports Med 28:228–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Reilly T, Williams AM, Nevill A, Franks A (2000) A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer. J Sports Sci 18:695–702CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Sampaino J, Macas V (2003) Differences between football players’ sprint test performance across different levels of competition. Communication to the fifth world congress of science and football. Editorial Gymnos, Madrid, p 300Google Scholar
  47. Semenick D (1990) Test and measurements: the T-test. Nat Strength Cond Assoc J 12:36–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sheppard JM, Young WB, Doyle TL, Sheppard TA, Newton RU (2006) An evaluation of a new test of reactive agility and its relationship to sprint speed and change of direction speed. J Sci Med Sport 9:342–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Spencer M, Bishop D, Dawson B, Goodman C (2005) Physiological and metabolic responses of repeated-sprint activities: specific to field-based team sports. Sports Med 35:1025–1044CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Svensson M, Drust B (2005) Testing soccer players. J Sports Sci 23:601–618CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Varley MC, Elias GP, Aughey RJ (2012a) Current match-analysis techniques’ underestimation of intense periods of high-velocity running. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 7(2):183–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Varley MC, Fairweather IH, Aughey RJ (2012b) Validity and reliability of GPS for measuring instantaneous velocity during acceleration, deceleration, and constant motion. J Sport Sci 30:121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wadley JG, Le Rossignol P (1998) The relationship between repeated sprint ability and the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems. J Sci Med Sport 1:100–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Wragg CB, Maxwell NS, Doust JH (2000) Evaluation of the reliability and validity of a soccer-specific field test of repeated sprint ability. Eur J Appl Physiol 83:77–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Di Mascio
    • 1
  • Jack Ade
    • 1
    • 2
  • Paul S. Bradley
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Sport and Exercise SciencesUniversity of SunderlandSunderlandUK
  2. 2.Medical DepartmentNewcastle United Football ClubNewcastle upon TyneUK
  3. 3.Carnegie School of SportLeeds Beckett UniversityLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations