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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 115, Issue 11, pp 2253–2262 | Cite as

Ipsilateral resistance exercise prevents exercise-induced central sensitization in the contralateral limb: a randomized controlled trial

  • Mahdi Hosseinzadeh
  • Afshin Samani
  • Ole K. Andersen
  • Kazunori Nosaka
  • Lars Arendt-Nielsen
  • Pascal Madeleine
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that a repeated bout of eccentric exercise (ECC2) would result in smaller increase in the sensitivity of spinal nociceptive system, and smaller decrease in the local muscle blood oxygenation response in both the ipsilateral and the contralateral tibialis anterior muscle (TA) when compared with the initial bout (ECC1). It was hypothesized that the magnitude of the repeated bout effect (RBE) would be greater for the ipsilateral side than the contralateral side.

Methods

Twenty-six healthy young men performed two bouts of high-intensity eccentric exercise of TA separated by 2 weeks. Half of the participants used the same leg for both bouts (IPSI) and the other half used the contralateral leg for ECC2 (CONTRA). Nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold (NWRT) and local muscle blood oxygenation were assessed for the exercised TA muscle before, immediately after, and one day after exercise.

Results

Significant decreases in NWRT and muscle oxygenation were observed after ECC1 (p < 0.05), but NWRT did not change after ECC2 in both groups. Smaller decreases in muscle oxygenation were observed after ECC2 than ECC1 in both groups with a similar magnitude of the difference between bouts, but an increase in muscle oxygen re-perfusion before ECC2 was only observed in the IPSI group.

Conclusion

These results suggest that contralateral RBE was associated with spinal facilitation of the neuronal pathways situated at a homologous innervation level, and it is unlikely that oxygen re-perfusion improvement plays a major role in the contralateral RBE.

Keywords

Cross-transfer effect Eccentric exercise Muscle oxygenation Nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold Repeated bout effect 

Abbreviations

CONTRA

Contralateral

DOMS

Delayed onset muscle soreness

ECC

Eccentric exercise

EMG

Surface electromyography

HHb

De-oxyhemoglobin

IPSI

Ipsilateral

MVC

Maximum voluntary contraction

NIRS

Near infrared spectroscopy

NWR

Nociceptive withdrawal reflex

NWRT

Nociceptive withdrawal reflex threshold

O2Hb

Oxyhemoglobin

PPT

Pressure pain threshold

RBE

Repeated bout effect

TA

Tibialis anterior

TSI

Tissue saturation index

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Dr. EN Kamavuako (Aalborg University, Denmark) for methodological recommendations regarding the use of NIRS.

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interest, financial, or otherwise, are declared by the authors.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahdi Hosseinzadeh
    • 1
  • Afshin Samani
    • 1
  • Ole K. Andersen
    • 1
  • Kazunori Nosaka
    • 2
  • Lars Arendt-Nielsen
    • 1
  • Pascal Madeleine
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Activity and Human Performance Group, SMI, Department of Health Science and TechnologyAalborg UniversityAalborgDenmark
  2. 2.Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health SciencesEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia

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