European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 115, Issue 9, pp 1967–1974 | Cite as

Effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation on the metabolic response during Wingate anaerobic test

  • Naoto Fujii
  • Sho-Ichiro Tsuchiya
  • Bun Tsuji
  • Kazuhito Watanabe
  • Yosuke Sasaki
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
Original Article



We evaluated whether hypocapnia achieved through voluntary hyperventilation diminishes the increases in oxygen uptake elicited by short-term (e.g., ~30 s) all-out exercise without affecting exercise performance.


Nine subjects performed 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) in control and hypocapnia trials on separate days in a counterbalanced manner. During the 20-min rest prior to the 30-s WAnT, the subjects in the hypocapnia trial performed voluntary hyperventilation (minute ventilation = 31 L min−1), while the subjects in the control trial continued breathing spontaneously (minute ventilation = 14 L min−1).


The hyperventilation in the hypocapnia trial reduced end-tidal CO2 pressure from 34.8 ± 2.5 mmHg at baseline rest to 19.3 ± 1.0 mmHg immediately before the 30-s WAnT. In the control trial, end-tidal CO2 pressure at baseline rest (35.9 ± 2.5 mmHg) did not differ from that measured immediately before the 30-s WAnT (35.9 ± 3.3 mmHg). Oxygen uptake during the 30-s WAnT was lower in the hypocapnia than the control trial (1.55 ± 0.52 vs. 1.95 ± 0.44 L min−1), while the postexercise peak blood lactate concentration was higher in the hypocapnia than control trial (10.4 ± 1.9 vs. 9.6 ± 1.9 mmol L−1). In contrast, there was no difference in the 5-s peak (842 ± 111 vs. 850 ± 107 W) or mean (626 ± 74 vs. 639 ± 80 W) power achieved during the 30-s WAnT between the control and hypocapnia trials.


These results suggest that during short-period all-out exercise (e.g., 30-s WAnT), hypocapnia induced by voluntary hyperventilation reduces the aerobic metabolic rate without affecting exercise performance. This implies a compensatory elevation in the anaerobic metabolic rate.


High-intensity exercise Anaerobic capacity Respiratory alkalosis Hypoxia Training 



Wingate anaerobic test


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naoto Fujii
    • 1
  • Sho-Ichiro Tsuchiya
    • 1
  • Bun Tsuji
    • 1
  • Kazuhito Watanabe
    • 1
  • Yosuke Sasaki
    • 1
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Health and Sport SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukuba CityJapan

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