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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 115, Issue 6, pp 1339–1349 | Cite as

Factors to consider when assessing diurnal variation in sports performance: the influence of chronotype and habitual training time-of-day

  • Dale E. RaeEmail author
  • Kim J. Stephenson
  • Laura C. Roden
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to compare morning and evening time-trial performance, RPE and mood state of trained swimmers, taking into account chronotype, habitual training time-of-day and PERIOD3 (PER3) variable number tandem repeat genotype.

Methods

Twenty-six swimmers (18 males, age: 32.6 ± 5.7 years) swam 200 m time trials (TT) at 06h30 and 18h30 in a randomised order.

Results

There was no difference between morning and evening performance when the swimmers were considered as a single group (06h30: 158.8 ± 22.7 s, 18h30: 158.5 ± 22.0 s, p = 0.611). However, grouping swimmers by chronotype and habitual training time-of-day allowed us to detect significant diurnal variation in performance, such that morning-type swimmers and those who habitually train in the morning were faster in the 06h30 TT (p = 0.036 and p = 0.011, respectively). This was accompanied by lower ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) scores post-warm-up, higher vigour and lower fatigues scores prior to the 06h30 TT in morning-type swimmers or those who trained in the morning. Similarly, neither types and those who trained in the evenings had lower fatigue and higher vigour prior to the 18h30 TT.

Conclusions

It appears that both chronotype and habitual training time-of-day need to be considered when assessing diurnal variation in performance. From a practical point of view, athletes and coaches should be aware of the potentially powerful effect of training time on shifting time-of-day variation in performance.

Keywords

Morning types Neither types Habitual training Chronobiology PER3 VNTR 

Abbreviations

AM

Habitual morning training group

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

Horne-Östberg

MT

Morning type

NT

Neither type

PER3

Period3 gene

PM

Habitual evening training group

POMS

Profile of mood states

RPE

Rating of perceived exertion

TMD

Total mood disturbance

TT

Time-trial

VNTR

Variable number tandem repeat

4/4

Homozygous for the PERIOD3 4-repeat allele

4/5

Heterozygous for the PERIOD3 4- and 5-repeats

5/5

Homozygous for the PERIOD3 5-repeat allele

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the swimmers for their commitment to this study. KS received the Innovation Masters Scholarship from the National Research Foundation of South Africa, as well as a bursary from the University of Cape Town’s Research Committee. LR received grants from the National Research Foundation of South Africa and the University of Cape Town’s Research Committee. DR received an internal interim grant from the University of Cape Town and DR’s research unit receives funding from Discovery Vitality and the South African Medical Research Council.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dale E. Rae
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kim J. Stephenson
    • 1
  • Laura C. Roden
    • 2
  1. 1.MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health SciencesUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of Cape TownCape TownSouth Africa

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