Peripheral heart action (PHA) training as a valid substitute to high intensity interval training to improve resting cardiovascular changes and autonomic adaptation
- 776 Downloads
The present study evaluated the effects of peripheral heart action training compared with high intensity interval training on changes in autonomic regulation and physical fitness.
Eighteen young adults (9 women, 9 men) (age 24 ± 3 years, BMI of 22.67 kg/m2, V′O2max 32.89 ml/kg/min) were randomly assigned to either a high intensity interval training group (n = 8) or a peripheral heart action training (PHA) group (n = 10). Before and after training, maximal whole-body muscular strength, time series of beat-to-beat intervals for heart rate variability, and baroreflex sensitivity were recorded. Arterial baroreflex sensitivity and heart rate variability were estimated on both time and frequency domains. Physical fitness level was evaluated with maximum oxygen consumption test.
The effects of PHA whole-body resistance training increased muscular strength and maximum oxygen consumption, with an effect on vagal–cardiac control and cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity.
After 30 training sessions performed in 3 months, PHA resistance exercise promoted cardiovascular adaptations, with a decrease in the power spectral component of vascular sympathetic activity and an increase in the vagal modulation. Low-frequency oscillation estimated from systolic blood pressure variability seems to be a suitable index of the sympathetic modulation of vasomotor activity. This investigation also want to emphasize the beneficial effects of this particular resistance exercise training, considering also that the increase in muscular strength is inversely associated with all-cause mortality and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, independent of cardiorespiratory fitness levels.
KeywordsHeart rate variability Baroreflex sensitivity Resistance exercise PHA peripheral heart action HIIT high intensity interval training
Analysis of covariance
Artero-venous oxygen difference
Systolic blood pressure
Diastolic blood pressure
Fast Fourier transformation
High intensity interval training
Heart rate variability
The number of interval differences of successive R–R intervals greater than 50 ms
Peripheral heart action
Proportion derived by dividing NN50 by the total number of R–R intervals NN50
The percentage of one maximum repetition
The square root of the mean squared differences of successive R–R intervals
Standard deviation of the R–R interval
Maximum oxygen consumption
Conflict of interest
The author(s) declare(s) that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this article.
- American College of Sport Medicine (2013) ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
- Aubert AE, Beckers F, Ramaekers D (2000) Short-term heart rate variability in young athletes. J Cardiol 37:85–88Google Scholar
- Brzycki M (1993) Strength testing-predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. Am J Health Educ 64:88–90Google Scholar
- Camm AJ, Malik M, Bigger JT, Breithardt G, Cerutti S, Cohen RJ, Coumel P, Fallen EL, Kennedy HL, Kleiger RE (1996) Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Circulation 93:1043–1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fronchetti L, Nakamura FY, De-Oliveira FR, Lima-Silva AE, Lima JRP (2007) Effects of high-intensity interval training on heart rate variability during exercise. J Exerc Physiol OnlineGoogle Scholar
- Kiviniemi AM, Tulppo MP, Eskelinen JJ, Savolainen AM, Kapanen J, Heinonen IH, Kalliokoski KK (2014) Cardiac autonomic function and high-intensity interval training in middle-age men. Med Sci Sports ExercGoogle Scholar
- Lakatta EG (1993) Cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms in advanced age. Physiol Rev 73Google Scholar
- Otsuki T, Maeda S, Iemitsu M, Saito Y, Tanimura Y, Ajisaka R, Miyauchi T (2006) Effects of athletic strength and endurance exercise training in young humans on plasma endothelin-1 concentration and arterial distensibility. Exp Biol Med 231:789–793Google Scholar
- Pagani M, Lombardi F, Guzzetti S, Rimoldi O, Furlan R, Pizzinelli P, Sandrone G, Malfatto G, Dell’Orto S, Piccaluga E (1986) Power spectral analysis of heart rate and arterial pressure variabilities as a marker of sympatho-vagal interaction in man and conscious dog. Circ Res 59:178–193CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pagani M, Mazzuero G, Ferrari A, Liberati D, Cerutti S, Vaitl D, Tavazzi L, Malliani A (1991) Sympathovagal interaction during mental stress. A study using spectral analysis of heart rate variability in healthy control subjects and patients with a prior myocardial infarction. Circulation 83(4 suppl):II43–II51PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rochelle RH, Stumpner RL, Robinson S, Dill DB, Horvath SM (1970) Peripheral blood flow response to exercise consequent to physical training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 3:122–129Google Scholar
- Selig SE, Carey MF, Menzies DG, Patterson J, Geerling RH, Williams AD, Bamroongsuk V, Toia D, Krum H, Hare DL (2004) Moderate-intensity resistance exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure improves strength, endurance, heart rate variability, and forearm blood flow. J Card Fail 10:21–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Thompson WR (2013) Now trending: worldwide survey of fitness trends for 2014. ACSMs Health Fit J 17:10–20Google Scholar
- van Zyl LT, Hasegawa T, Nagata K (2008) Effects of antidepressant treatment on heart rate variability in major depression: a quantitative review. Biopsychosoc Med:2–12Google Scholar
- Weber E (1914) Eine physiologische methode, die leistungsfähigkeit ermüdeter menschlicher muskeln zu erhöhen: Ergographische untersuchungen. Archiv für Physiol:385–420Google Scholar
- Williams MA, Haskell WL, Ades PA, Amsterdam EA, Bittner V, Franklin BA, Stewart KJ (2007) Resistance exercise in individuals with and without cardiovascular disease: 2007 update a scientific statement from the American heart association council on clinical cardiology and council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism. Circulation 116:572–584CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Winzer EB, Linke A (2014) Exercise training improves endothelial function in human cardiovascular disease-role of oxidative stress. Syst Biol Free Radic Antioxid:3831–3853Google Scholar