European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 115, Issue 3, pp 497–505 | Cite as

Contracting biceps brachii elastic properties can be reliably characterized using supersonic shear imaging

  • Thomas LapoleEmail author
  • Jérémy Tindel
  • Robin Galy
  • Antoine Nordez
Original Article



Since experimental techniques classically used to investigate the mechanical behavior of muscle in vivo assess global mechanical properties of the musculo-articular complex, the aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility and reliability of localized contracting biceps brachii elastic properties’ measurements using elastography.


Twelve subjects participated in intra-session, inter-session and inter-observer reliability experiments. They were asked to perform a linear torque ramp of 30 s from 0 to 75 % of maximal voluntary contraction. Joint torque, electromyographic (EMG) activity and shear elastic modulus were synchronously measured in the biceps brachii. Elastic properties were determined by stiffness indexes calculated as the slopes of the linear regressions established between shear modulus and joint torque or EMG levels. Compliance indexes were also obtained by plotting logarithmic values of shear modulus versus torque or EMG.


Determination coefficients were high for the four relationships (0.87–0.94). In addition, reliability was significantly higher for the compliance index taking into account logarithmic values of EMG activity (mean coefficient of variation of 5.3 ± 4.1 %; P = 0.003). Although not statistically different from other methods (P = 0.111), the mean intra-class correlation coefficient was excellent (0.98 ± 0.01) and the standard error in measurement very low (0.04 ± 0.01 for a mean index of −0.73 ± 0.28).


Biceps brachii elastic properties can be reliably investigated during contraction via elastography using the proposed fitting method. Use of this technique could provide new insights into the understanding of localized muscle elastic properties adaptations.


Elastography Muscle elasticity Electromyography Biceps brachii 



Compliance index


Coefficient of variation




Intra-class correlation coefficient


Maximal voluntary contraction


Root mean square


Series elastic component


Standard error in measurement


Stiffness index


Supersonic shear wave imaging



The authors thank John Temesi for revision of the English throughout the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Lapole
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jérémy Tindel
    • 1
  • Robin Galy
    • 1
  • Antoine Nordez
    • 2
  1. 1.Université de LyonLaboratoire de Physiologie de l’ExerciceSaint-Étienne Cedex 2France
  2. 2.EA 4334 «Motricité Interactions, Performance», UFR STAPSUniversité de NantesNantesFrance

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