Separate and combined effects of 21-day bed rest and hypoxic confinement on body composition
This study tested the hypothesis that hypoxia exacerbates reductions in body mass observed during unloading.
To discern the separate and combined effects of simulated microgravity and hypoxia, 11 healthy males underwent three 21-day campaigns in a counterbalanced fashion: (1) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3); (2) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4; ~4,000 m); and (3) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4). The same dietary menu was applied in all campaigns. Targeted energy intakes were estimated individually using the Harris–Benedict equation taking into account whether the subjects were bedridden or ambulatory. Body mass and water balance were assessed throughout the campaigns. Whole body and regional body composition was determined before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Before and during the campaigns, indirect calorimetry and visual analogue scores were employed to assess the resting energy expenditure (REE) and perceived appetite sensations, respectively.
Energy intakes were lower than targeted in all campaigns (NBR: −5 %; HAMB: −14 %; HBR: −6 %; P < 0.01). Body mass significantly decreased following all campaigns (NBR: −3 %; HAMB: −4 %; HBR: −5 %; P < 0.01). While fat mass was not significantly altered, the whole body fat free mass was reduced (NBR: −4 %; HAMB: −5 %; HBR: −5 %; P < 0.01), secondary to lower limb fat-free mass reduction. Water balance was comparable between the campaigns. No changes were observed in REE and perceived appetite.
Exposure to simulated altitude of ~4,000 m does not seem to worsen the whole body mass and fat-free mass reductions or alter resting energy expenditure and appetite during a 21-day simulated microgravity.
KeywordsNormobaric hypoxia Simulated microgravity Fat-free mass Energy expenditure Appetite
Acute mountain sickness
Body mass index
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
Fraction of inspired O2
Hypoxic ambulatory confinement
Hypoxic bed rest
Lake Louise score
Normoxic bed rest
Physical activity level factor
Prospective food consumption
Partial pressure of inspired O2
Peak power output
Resting energy expenditure
Respiratory exchange ratio
Capillary oxyhemoglobin saturation
Visual analogue score
The study was funded by the European Union Programme FP7 (PlanHab project; Grant No. 284438), the European Space Agency (ESA) Programme for European Cooperating States (ESTEC/Contract No. 40001043721/11/NL/KML: Planetary Habitat Simulation), and the Slovene Research Agency (Contract No. L3-3654: Zero and reduced gravity simulation: the effect on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems). The authors are indebted to Iva Kumprej, Elaine Woods and Seodhna Murphy for their excellent assistance with the data collection. Last but definitely not least, we would like to acknowledge the devoted participants without whom this study would not have been possible.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Etheridge T, Atherton PJ, Wilkinson D, Selby A, Rankin D, Webborn N, Smith K, Watt PW (2011) Effects of hypoxia on muscle protein synthesis and anabolic signaling at rest and in response to acute resistance exercise. Am J Physiol 301(4):E697–E702Google Scholar
- Roach RC, Bartsch P, Hackett PH, Oelz O (1993) The Lake Louise AMS Scoring Consensus Committee. The Lake Louise acute mountain sickness scoring system. In: Sutton JR, Houston CS, Coates G, Burlington VT (eds) Hypoxia and molecular medicine. Queen City Printers, USA, pp 272–274Google Scholar
- Snijder MB, Visser M, Dekker JM, Seidell JC, Fuerst T, Tylavsky F, Cauley J, Lang T, Nevitt M, Harris TB (2002) The prediction of visceral fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the elderly: a comparison with computed tomography and anthropometry. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 26(7):984–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zwart SR, Crawford GE, Gillman PL, Kala G, Rodgers AS, Rogers A, Inniss AM, Rice BL, Ericson K, Coburn S, Bourbeau Y, Hudson E, Mathew G, Dekerlegand DE, Sams CF, Heer MA, Paloski WH, Smith SM (2009) Effects of 21 days of bed rest, with or without artificial gravity, on nutritional status of humans. J Appl Physiol 107(1):54–62PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar