Small-sided games training reduces CRP, IL-6 and leptin in sedentary, middle-aged men
- 406 Downloads
Long-term physical activity is reported to improve chronic systemic inflammation, which provides protection against the ensuing development of chronic disease. Accordingly, the present study assessed changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, aerobic capacity and body composition following 8 weeks of either small-sided games (SSG) or cycling (CYC) training compared to a sedentary control (CON) condition.
Thirty-three middle-aged, sedentary men were randomized into CYC (n = 11), SSG (n = 11), or CON (n = 11) conditions. The CYC and SSG conditions trained 3 days/week for 8 weeks, whilst CON maintained habitual activity and dietary patterns. Pre- and post-intervention testing included a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, sub-maximal (80 % maximal heart rate) aerobic capacity (VO2) and fasting venous blood. Venous blood measures for pro-inflammatory markers included C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and leptin; anti-inflammatory markers included IL-10, IL-1 receptor agonist, and adiponectin.
Both CYC and SSG increased submaximal power output and VO2 (P < 0.05), decreased total body fat-mass (TB-FM; P < 0.05), and CRP (SSG, −0.45 ± 0.42 mg L−1; P = 0.008; CYC, −0.44 ± 0.59 mg L−1; P = 0.02). Only SSG increased total body fat-free mass (TB-FFM; +1.1 ± 1.2 kg; P = 0.001) and decreased concentration of plasma IL-6 (−0.69 ± 0.62 pg mL−1; P = 0.002) and leptin (−2,212 ± 2,531 ng mL−1; P = 0.014).
Cycling and SSG training were both effective at improving CRP, VO2 and TB-FM. Furthermore, SSG training has also shown to be an effective training approach in reducing IL-6 and leptin and increasing muscle mass within sedentary, middle-aged men.
KeywordsObesity Body composition Inflammation Adiponectin Cytokines Cycling Football Team sports
Body mass index
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry
Glucose transporter 4
Global positioning satellite
Graded exercise test
Maximum heart rate
Rating of perceived exertion
Revolutions per minute
Total body fat mass
Total-body fat-free mass
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
The authors would like to acknowledge the Faculty of Education Grant, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst for providing the funding required for blood analysis. The authors would also like to acknowledge staff at Pathology, Bathurst Base Hospital NSW, Australia, and the Institutional staff at Charles Sturt University Exercise Physiology Laboratories, Bathurst, NSW for assistance and support involving blood analysis. The authors would also like to thank the participants and research assistants for their involvement in the study.
- Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, Fernando F, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, Fallucca S, Alessi E, Letizia C, Jimenez A (2010) Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is dependent on exercise modalities and independent of weight loss. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 20(8):608–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carson EL, Livingstone MBE, Pourshahidi LK, McCrorie TA, Wallace JMW (2012) Associations between leptin, adiponectin and body composition in healthy adults. Proc Nutr Soc 71(OCE2)Google Scholar
- Kohut ML, McCann DA, Russell DW, Konopka DN, Cunnick JE, Franke WD, Castillo MC, Reighard AE, Vanderah E (2006) Aerobic exercise, but not flexibility/resistance exercise, reduces serum IL-18, CRP, and IL-6 independent of -blockers, BMI, and psychosocial factors in older adults. Brain Behav Immun 20(3):201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kraemer RR, Chu H, Castracane VD (2002) Leptin and exercise. Exp Biol Med 227(9):701–708Google Scholar
- Krustrup P, Hansen PR, Andersen LJ, Jakobsen MD, Sundstrup E, Randers MB, Christiansen L, Helge EW, Pedersen MT, Søgaard P (2010b) Long-term musculoskeletal and cardiac health effects of recreational football and running for premenopausal women. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20(s1):58–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marfell-Jones MJ, Stewart AD, de Ridder JH (2012) International standards for anthropometric assessment. International Society for the Advancement of Kinathropometry, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
- Oberbach A, Tönjes A, Klöting N, Fasshauer M, Kratzsch J, Busse MW, Paschke R, Stumvoll M, Blüher M (2006) Effect of a 4 week physical training program on plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance. Eur J Endocrinol 154(4):577–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pasman WJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WHM (1998) The effect of exercise training on leptin levels in obese males. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 274(2):E280–E286Google Scholar
- Randers MB, Nybo L, Petersen J, Nielsen JJ, Christiansen L, Bendiksen M, Brito J, Bangsbo J, Krustrup P (2010) Activity profile and physiological response to football training for untrained males and females, elderly and youngsters: influence of the number of players. Scand J Med Sci Sports 20(s1):14–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Samjoo IA, Safdar A, Hamadeh MJ, Raha S, Tarnopolsky MA (2013) The effect of endurance exercise on both skeletal muscle and systemic oxidative stress in previously sedentary obese men. Nutr Diabetes 3(e88):1–10Google Scholar
- Visser M, Pahor M, Taaffe DR, Goodpaster BH, Simonsick EM, Newman AB, Nevitt M, Harris TB (2002) Relationship of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a with muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly men and women the health ABC Study. J Gerontol A Biol Med Sci 57(5):326–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar