European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 114, Issue 10, pp 2139–2145 | Cite as

Hypervolemia induced by fluid ingestion at rest: effect of sodium concentration

  • Akira Sugihara
  • Naoto Fujii
  • Bun Tsuji
  • Kazuhito Watanabe
  • Takehiro Niwa
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Sodium drink is used as a countermeasure against body fluid loss. However, high concentrations of sodium may cause gastrointestinal upset (e.g., diarrhea). We sought to determine the sodium concentration that induces hypervolemia with a minimal risk of gastrointestinal disturbance.

Methods

Eight healthy active males rested in a chair and ingested a given amount (16−17 ml kg body mass−1) of water (W) or solution containing 60, 120 or 180 mmol l−1 Na+ (60, 120 and 180Na trials) in 6 equal portions at 10 min intervals. To standardize their hydration status, subjects consumed the same meal and water 2 h before each trial. Drink trials were performed on separate days, and the order was randomized. The change in plasma volume (PV) from pre-drink status was estimated from the hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit every 30 min for 150 min after initiation of drinking.

Results

Subjects began trials in a euhydrated state, as reflected by their plasma osmolality (in mmol l−1: W, 289.4 ± 1.4; 60Na, 287.0 ± 3.5; 120Na, 287.6 ± 2.3; 180Na, 288.9 ± 3.3). At 120 min, PV had not increased from the pre-drink value in the W (−0.8 ± 4.5 %) or 60Na (2.4 ± 4.9 %) trials, but it increased to similar degrees in the 120Na (7.2 ± 4.6 %) and 180Na (9.4 ± 6.6 %) trials. No diarrhea was reported in the W or 60Na trials, but it was reported in the 120Na (n = 1) and 180Na (n = 6) trials.

Conclusions

Beverages containing 120 mmol l−1 Na+ induce hypervolemia with a minimum incidence of gastrointestinal problems.

Keywords

Hyperhydration Blood Extracellular fluid Fluid balance Fluid intake 

Abbreviations

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

AVP

Arginine vasopressin

BM

Body mass

Hb

Hemoglobin concentration

Hct

Hematocrit

Posm

Plasma osmolality

PV

Plasma volume

UV

Urine volume

References

  1. Buckey JC Jr, Lane LD, Levine BD, Watenpaugh DE, Wright SJ, Moore WE, Gaffney FA, Blomqvist CG (1996) Orthostatic intolerance after spaceflight. J Appl Physiol 81:7–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bungo MW, Charles JB, Johnson PC Jr (1985) Cardiovascular deconditioning during space flight and the use of saline as a countermeasure to orthostatic intolerance. Aviat Space Environ Med 56:985–990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Claybaugh JR, Pendergast DR, Davis JE, Akiba C, Pzik M, Hong SK (1986) Fluid conservation in athletes: responses to water intake, supine posture, and immersion. J Appl Physiol 61:7–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Coles MG, Luetkemeier MJ (2005) Sodium-facilitated hypervolemia, endurance performance, and thermoregulation. Int J Sports Med 26:182–187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Costill DL, Saltin B (1974) Factors limiting gastric emptying during rest and exercise. J Appl Physiol 37:679–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dill DB, Costill DL (1974) Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37:247–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Fordtran JS (1975) Stimulation of active and passive sodium absorption by sugars in the human jejunum. J Clin Invest 55:728–737PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Fordtran JS, Rector FC Jr, Carter NW (1968) The mechanisms of sodium absorption in the human small intestine. J Clin Invest 47:884–900PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Freund BJ, Claybaugh JR, Dice MS, Hashiro GM (1987) Hormonal and vascular fluid responses to maximal exercise in trained and untrained males. J Appl Physiol 63:669–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Freund BJ, Montain SJ, Young AJ, Sawka MN, DeLuca JP, Pandolf KB, Valeri CR (1995) Glycerol hyperhydration: hormonal, renal, and vascular fluid responses. J Appl Physiol 79:2069–2077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Frey MA, Riddle J, Charles JB, Bungo MW (1991) Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. J Clin Pharmacol 31:880–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gisolfi CV, Summers RW, Shedl HP, Bleiler TL (1992) Intestinal water absorption from select carbohydrate solutions in humans. J Appl Physiol 73:2142–2150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Greenleaf JE (1990) Importance of fluid homeostasis for optimal adaptation to exercise and environmental stress: Acceleration. In: Gisolfi CV, Lamb DR (eds) Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine, vol 3., Fluid homeostasis during exercise. Benchmark Press, Indianapolis, pp 309–346Google Scholar
  14. Greenleaf JE, Brock PJ (1980) Na+ and Ca2+ ingestion: plasma volume−electrolyte distribution at rest and exercise. J Appl Physiol 48:838–847PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenleaf JE, Looft-Wilson R, Wisherd JL, McKenzie MA, Jensen CD, Whittam JH (1997) Pre-exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men. Biol Sport 14:103–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Greenleaf JE, Looft-Wilson R, Wisherd JL, Jackson CGR, Fung PP, Ertl AC, Barnes PR, Jensen CD, Whittam JH (1998) Hypervolemia in men from fluid ingestion at rest and during exercise. Aviat Space Environ Med 69:374–386PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gregersen MI, Rawson RA (1959) Blood volume. Physiol Rev 39:307–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hagan RD, Diaz FJ, Horvath SM (1978) Plasma volume changes with movement to supine and standing positions. J Appl Physiol 45:414–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hellier MD, Thirumalai C, Holdsworth CD (1973) The effect of amino acids and dipeptides on sodium and water absorption in man. Gut 14:41–45PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Hunt JN, Pathak JD (1960) The osmotic effects of some simple molecules and ions on gastric emptying. J Physiol 154:254–269PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Jeukendrup AE (2011) Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling. J Sports Sci 29:S91–S99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kamijo Y, Ikegawa S, Okada Y, Masuki S, Okazaki K, Uchida K, Sakurai M, Nose H (2012) Enhanced renal Na+ reabsorption by carbohydrate in beverages during restitution from thermal and exercise-induced dehydration in men. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 303:R824–R833PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leiper JB (2001) Gastric emptying and intestinal absorption of fluids, carbohydrates, and electrolytes. In: Maughan RJ, Murray R (eds) Sports drinks. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 89–128Google Scholar
  24. Love AHG (1966) The influence of the temperature of intraluminal contents on fluid transit and absorption in the human intestine. J Physiol 185:80PGoogle Scholar
  25. Maughan RJ, Leiper JB (1995) Sodium intake and post-exercise rehydration in man. Eur J Appl Physiol 71:311–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nakamura M, Kurihara K (1991) Differential temperature dependence of taste nerve responses to various taste stimuli in dogs and rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 261:R1402–R1408Google Scholar
  27. Nelson MD, Stuart-Hill LA, Sleivert GG (2008) Hypervolemia and blood alkalinity: effect on physiological strain in a warm environment. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3:501–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Noakes TD, Myburgh KH, du Plessis J, Lang L, Lambert M, van der Riet C, Schall R (1991) Metabolic rate, not percent dehydration, predicts rectal temperature in marathon runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:443–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Osterberg KL, Pallardy SE, Johnson RJ, Horswill CA (2010) Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration. J Appl Physiol 108:245–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robertson GL, Athar S (1976) The interaction of blood osmolality and blood volume in the regulating plasma vasopressin in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42:613–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sawka MN (1990) Body fluid responses and hypohydration during exercise-heat stress. In: Pandolf KB, Sawka MN, Gonzalez RR (eds) Human performance physiology and environmental medicine in terrestrial extremes. Benchmark Press, Indianapolis, pp 227–266Google Scholar
  32. Sawka MN, Burke LM, Eichner ER, Maughan RJ, Montain SJ, Stachenfeld NS (2007) American college of sports medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:377–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schedl HP, Clifton JA (1963) Solute and water absorption by the human small intestine. Nature 199:1264–1267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shirreffs SM, Maughan RJ (1998) Volume repletion after exercise-induced volume depletion in humans: replacement of water and sodium losses. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 274:F868–F875Google Scholar
  35. Sims ST, van Vliet L, Cotter JD, Rehrer NJ (2007a) Sodium loading aids fluid balance and reduces physiological strain of trained men exercising in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sims ST, Rehrer NJ, Bell ML, Cotter JD (2007b) Preexercise sodium loading aids fluid balance and endurance for women exercising in the heat. J Appl Physiol 103:534–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sims ST, Rehrer NJ, Bell ML, Cotter JD (2008) Endogenous and exogenous female sex hormones and renal electrolyte handling: effects of an acute sodium load on plasma volume at rest. J Appl Physiol 105:121–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stachenfeld NS, Splenser AE, Calzone WL, Taylor MP, Keefe DL (2001) Sex differences in osmotic regulation of AVP and renal sodium handling. J Appl Physiol 91:1893–1901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Vist GE, Maughan RJ (1995) The effect of osmolality and carbohydrate content on the rate of gastric emptying of liquids in man. J Physiol 486:523–531PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. World Health Organization (2005) The treatment of diarrhoea: a manual for physicians and other senior health workers, 4th rev. ed. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43209/1/9241593180.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 6 May 2014

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Sugihara
    • 1
  • Naoto Fujii
    • 1
  • Bun Tsuji
    • 1
  • Kazuhito Watanabe
    • 1
  • Takehiro Niwa
    • 1
  • Takeshi Nishiyasu
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Health and Sport SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations