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European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 114, Issue 7, pp 1483–1492 | Cite as

Three months of moderate-intensity exercise reduced plasma 3-nitrotyrosine in rheumatoid arthritis patients

  • Alex J. Wadley
  • Jet J. C. S. Veldhuijzen van Zanten
  • Antonios Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou
  • George S. Metsios
  • Jacqueline P. Smith
  • George D. Kitas
  • Sarah AldredEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients display high levels of oxidative stress. Transient exercise-induced increases in oxidative stress are thought to be adaptive in healthy populations. This study investigated the effect of exercise on markers of oxidative stress in RA, following acute exercise and a period of exercise training.

Methods

Acute exercise study: RA patients (N = 12, age: 56 ± 11) undertook a bout of exercise (30–40 min, 70 % VO2MAX), and blood samples were taken before and after exercise to assess markers of oxidative stress. Training study: RA patients (N = 19, age: 56 ± 10) were randomised into either a control or exercise group, who undertook 3 exercise sessions per week (30–40 min @70 % VO2MAX) for 3 months. Plasma markers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyls (PC), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and catalase (CAT) activity), inflammation (interleukin-8 (IL-8) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were assessed before and after training.

Results

Acute exercise study: Protein carbonyls (PC) (+18 %) and NOx (+27 %) were significantly increased following exercise. Training study: 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) decreased (2.18 ± 1.78 to 1.10 ± 0.93 μM) in the exercise group only, alongside increases in aerobic fitness (24.45 ± 4.98 to 27.10 ± 4.51 ml/kg/min−1) and reductions in disease activity score (DAS: 3.47 ± 1.17 to 2.88 ± 0.76). PC, LOOH, TAC, IL-8, CRP and NOx concentrations, and CAT activity were unchanged in both groups.

Conclusions

Aerobic exercise training did not increase markers of oxidative stress in RA patients. 3-Nitrotyrosine and disease activity were decreased following exercise training.

Keywords

Reactive oxygen species Exercise Cytokine Nitric oxide Nitrotyrosine 

Abbreviations

CAT

Catalase

CRP

C-reactive protein

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DAS

Disease activity score

IL-8

Interleukin-8

LOOH

Lipid hydroperoxides

3-NT

3-nitrotyrosine

NO

Nitric oxide

NOx

Nitric oxide metabolites

O2

Superoxide

ONOO

Peroxynitrite

PC

Protein carbonyls

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

TAC

Total antioxidant capacity

Notes

Conflict of interest

None of the authors declare a conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex J. Wadley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jet J. C. S. Veldhuijzen van Zanten
    • 1
    • 3
  • Antonios Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • George S. Metsios
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Jacqueline P. Smith
    • 3
  • George D. Kitas
    • 3
    • 5
  • Sarah Aldred
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK
  2. 2.School of Sport, Exercise and Health SciencesLoughborough UniversityLoughboroughUK
  3. 3.Department of RheumatologyDudley Group NHS Foundation TrustDudleyUK
  4. 4.School of Sport Performing Arts and LeisureUniversity of WolverhamptonWalsallUK
  5. 5.Research Institute in Physical Performance and RehabilitationCentre for Research and Technology ThessalyTrikalaGreece

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