European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 114, Issue 6, pp 1309–1320 | Cite as

Vitamin D supplementation does not improve human skeletal muscle contractile properties in insufficient young males

  • Daniel J. Owens
  • Daniel Webber
  • Samuel G. Impey
  • Jonathan Tang
  • Timothy F. Donovan
  • William D. Fraser
  • James P. Morton
  • Graeme L. Close
Original Article



Vitamin D may be a regulator of skeletal muscle function, although human trials investigating this hypothesis are limited to predominantly elderly populations. We aimed to assess the effect of oral vitamin D3 in healthy young males upon skeletal muscle function.


Participants (n = 29) received an oral dose of 10,000 IU day−1 vitamin D3 (VITD) or a visually identical placebo (PLB) for 3 months. Serum 25[OH]D and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured at baseline and at week 4, 8 and 12. Muscle function was assessed in n = 22 participants by isokinetic dynamometry and percutaneous isometric electromyostimulation at baseline and at week 6 and 12.


Baseline mean total serum 25[OH]D was 40 ± 17 and 41 ± 20 nmol L−1 for PLB and VITD, respectively. VITD showed a significant improvement in total 25[OH]D at week 4 (150 ± 31 nmol L−1) that remained elevated throughout the trial (P < 0.005). Contrastingly, PLB showed a significant decrease in 25[OH]D at week 12 (25 ± 15 nmol L−1) compared with baseline. Despite marked increases in total serum 25[OH]D in VITD and a decrease in PLB, there were no significant changes in any of the muscle function outcome measures at week 6 or 12 for either group (P > 0.05).


Elevating total serum 25[OH]D to concentrations > 120 nmol L−1 has no effect on skeletal muscle function. We postulate that skeletal muscle function is only perturbed in conditions of severe deficiency (<12.5 nmol L−1).


Cholecalciferol 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Supplementation Isokinetic dynamometry Electromyostimulation Fatigue 



25-Hydroxyvitamin D




Calcium, Ionized


Enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunosorbent assay




Food and Drug Agency


Intact parathyroid hormone


International units


Isokinetic dynamometry


Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry


Lower limit of quantification




Newton metres

nmol L−1

Nanomoles per litre


Physical activity readiness Questionnaire

Pmol L−1

Picomoles per litre

rad s−1

Radians per second


Recommended daily intake


United States Institute of Medicine


Ultraviolet B



The authors would like to thank Dr. Rob Erskine and Ian Poole at LJMU for their expert technical assistance in electromyostimulation. Gratitude is also expressed by the authors to Emily Fisher, Christopher Washbourne and Isabelle Piec at UEA for the development of the LC–MS/MS assay.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel J. Owens
    • 1
  • Daniel Webber
    • 1
  • Samuel G. Impey
    • 1
  • Jonathan Tang
    • 2
  • Timothy F. Donovan
    • 3
  • William D. Fraser
    • 2
  • James P. Morton
    • 1
  • Graeme L. Close
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute for Sport and Exercise ScienceLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwich Medical SchoolUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  3. 3.Sport and Exercise SciencesGlyndwr UniversityWrexhamUK

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