Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of pre-adolescent and adolescent boys in comparison to young men
This study compared changes in indirect muscle damage markers after maximal eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors (EF) among pre-adolescent (9–10 years), adolescent (14–15 years) and post-adolescent (20–25 years) men to test the hypothesis that the magnitude of muscle damage would increase with increase in age.
Thirteen untrained men of each age group performed two bouts (ECC1, ECC2) of 30 maximal EF eccentric contractions. Several indirect muscle damage markers were measured from the exercised arm before, immediately after, and 1–5 days post-exercise. Changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque of the EF (MVC), range of motion of the elbow joint, upper arm circumference (CIR), muscle passive stiffness, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin concentration after ECC1 and ECC2 were compared amongst groups by a mixed-design two-way ANOVA.
MVC before exercise was smaller (P < 0.05) for pre-adolescent (8.9 ± 1.9 Nm) than adolescent (25.1 ± 3.9 Nm) and adult (35.3 ± 4.6 Nm), and for adolescent than adult. Changes in all variables after ECC1 were smaller (P < 0.05) for pre-adolescent and adolescent when compared with adult, and all except CIR changes were smaller (P < 0.05) for pre-adolescent than adolescent. After ECC2, changes in all variables were smaller (P < 0.05) than those after ECC1 for all groups, but the magnitude of the changes was different among groups (P < 0.05) in the same way as that after ECC1.
These results indicate that the magnitude of muscle damage is increased from pre-adolescent, adolescent to post-adolescent men.
KeywordsElbow flexors Puberty Lengthening contraction Maximal voluntary contraction Delayed onset muscle soreness Repeated bout effect
Analysis of variance
The area under the curve
Body mass index
Upper arm circumference
Coefficient of variation
Delayed onset muscle soreness
The first bout of maximal eccentric exercise
The second bout of maximal eccentric exercise
Muscle passive stiffness
Maximal voluntary contraction
Maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric contraction torque of the elbow extensors
Maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric contraction torque of the elbow flexors
Peak torque angle
An intraclass correlation coefficient
Range of motion
Visual analogue scale
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