European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 114, Issue 4, pp 867–880 | Cite as

The order effect of combined endurance and strength loadings on force and hormone responses: effects of prolonged training

  • Moritz Schumann
  • Simon Walker
  • Mikel Izquierdo
  • Robert U. Newton
  • William J. Kraemer
  • Keijo Häkkinen
Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

To examine acute responses and recovery of force and serum hormones to combined endurance and strength loadings utilizing different orders of exercises before and after training.

Methods

Physically active men were matched to an order sequence of endurance followed by strength (E + S, n = 12) or strength followed by endurance (S + E, n = 17). The subjects performed one experimental loading consisting of steady-state cycling and a leg press protocol before and after 24 weeks of order-specific combined training.

Results

No between-group difference in acute reductions of force was observed at week 0 (E + S −23 %, p < 0.001; S + E −22 %, p < 0.01) and 24 (E + S −25 %, p < 0.001; S + E −27 %, p < 0.001) and recovery in force was completed after 24 h in both groups at week 0 and 24. Concentrations of growth hormone (22-kDa) increased post-acute loading at week 0 (E + S, +57 fold, p < 0.05; S + E, +300 fold, p < 0.001; between-groups p < 0.001) and 24 (E + S, +80 fold, p < 0.01; S + E, +340 fold, p < 0.05; between-groups p < 0.05). No significant acute responses in concentrations of testosterone were observed at week 0 or 24. However, at week 0 testosterone was reduced during recovery following the E + S loading only (24 h −23 %, p < 0.01; 48 h −21 %, p < 0.001; between-groups at 24 and 48 h, p < 0.05), but was no longer observed after training. 1RM strength improved similarly in E + S (13 %, p < 0.001) and S + E (17 %, p < 0.001).

Conclusions

This study showed an order effect (E + S vs. S + E) in concentrations of testosterone during 2 days of recovery at week 0, which was diminished after 24 weeks of training. The initial difference in testosterone concentrations during recovery did not seem to be associated with strength development.

Keywords

Fatigue Testosterone Recovery Endurance cycling Concurrent training Combined training Training adaptations 

Abbreviations

C

Cortisol

CK

Creatine kinase

E

Endurance

ECG

Electrocardiogram

ES

Effect size

E + S

Endurance followed by strength

GH

Growth hormone (22-kDa)

MVCmax

Maximal isometric bilateral leg press force

S

Strength

SD

Standard deviation

S + E

Strength followed by endurance

T

Testosterone

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone

\({\dot{\text{V}}\text{O}}_{{ 2 {\text{max}}}}\)

Maximal oxygen consumption

1RM

One repetition maximum

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moritz Schumann
    • 1
  • Simon Walker
    • 1
  • Mikel Izquierdo
    • 2
  • Robert U. Newton
    • 3
  • William J. Kraemer
    • 4
  • Keijo Häkkinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology of Physical ActivityUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesPublic University of NavarraNavarraSpain
  3. 3.Health and Wellness InstituteEdith Cowan UniversityJoondalupAustralia
  4. 4.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

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