European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 114, Issue 3, pp 587–595 | Cite as

Compression stockings do not improve muscular performance during a half-ironman triathlon race

  • Juan Del Coso
  • Francisco Areces
  • Juan José Salinero
  • Cristina González-Millán
  • Javier Abián-Vicén
  • Lidon Soriano
  • Diana Ruiz
  • César Gallo
  • Beatriz Lara
  • Julio Calleja-Gonzalez
Original Article



This study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of compression stockings to prevent muscular damage and preserve muscular performance during a half-ironman triathlon.


Thirty-six experienced triathletes volunteered for this study. Participants were matched for age, anthropometric data and training status and placed into the experimental group (N = 19; using ankle-to-knee graduated compression stockings) or control group (N = 17; using regular socks). Participants competed in a half-ironman triathlon celebrated at 29 ± 3 °C and 73 ± 8 % of relative humidity. Race time was measured by means of chip timing. Pre- and post-race, maximal height and leg muscle power were measured during a countermovement jump. At the same time, blood myoglobin and creatine kinase concentrations were determined and the triathletes were asked for perceived exertion and muscle soreness using validated scales.


Total race time was not different between groups (315 ± 45 for the control group and 310 ± 32 min for the experimental group; P = 0.46). After the race, jump height (−8.5 ± 3.0 versus −9.2 ± 5.3 %; P = 0.47) and leg muscle power reductions (−13 ± 10 versus −15 ± 10 %; P = 0.72) were similar between groups. Post-race myoglobin (718 ± 119 versus 591 ± 100 μg/mL; P = 0.42) and creatine kinase concentrations (604 ± 137 versus 525 ± 69 U/L; P = 0.60) were not different between groups. Perceived muscle soreness (5.3 ± 2.1 versus 6.0 ± 2.0 arbitrary units; P = 0.42) and the rating of perceived effort (17 ± 2 versus 17 ± 2 arbitrary units; P = 0.58) were not different between groups after the race.


Wearing compression stockings did not represent any advantage for maintaining muscle function or reducing blood markers of muscle damage during a triathlon event.


Compression garments Jump performance Endurance athletes Myoglobin Creatine kinase Muscle damage 



Creatine kinase


Countermovement vertical jump


Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid


Effect size


Second peak of ground reaction force during the landing


Lactate dehydrogenase


Standard deviation


Oxygen uptake



The authors wish to thank the subjects for their invaluable contribution to the study. In addition, they are very grateful to the Organization of Ecotrimad for their contribution to the study. This study did not receive any funding. Compression stockings for the experimental group were facilitated by Compressport España.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest derived from the outcomes of this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan Del Coso
    • 1
  • Francisco Areces
    • 1
  • Juan José Salinero
    • 1
  • Cristina González-Millán
    • 1
  • Javier Abián-Vicén
    • 1
  • Lidon Soriano
    • 1
  • Diana Ruiz
    • 1
  • César Gallo
    • 1
  • Beatriz Lara
    • 1
  • Julio Calleja-Gonzalez
    • 2
  1. 1.Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Sports Science InstituteCamilo José Cela UniversityMadridSpain
  2. 2.Laboratory of Analysis of Sport Performance, Sport and Physical Education Department, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of the Basque CountryVitoriaSpain

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