European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 114, Issue 2, pp 331–343 | Cite as

Short-term high-intensity interval and continuous moderate-intensity training improve maximal aerobic power and diastolic filling during exercise

Original Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined the effects of short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) on cardiac function in young, healthy men.

Methods

Sixteen previously untrained men (mean age of 25.1 ± 4.1 years) were randomly assigned to HIT and CMT (n = 8 each) and assessed before and after six sessions over a 12-day training period. HIT consisted of 8–12 intervals of cycling for 60 s at 95–100 % of pre-training maximal aerobic power (\(\dot{V}\)O2max), interspersed by 75 s of cycling at 10 % \(\dot{V}\)O2max. CMT involved 90–120 min of cycling at 65 % pre-training \(\dot{V}\)O2max. Left ventricular (LV) function was determined at rest and during submaximal exercise (heart rate ~105 bpm) using two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography.

Results

Training resulted in increased calculated plasma volume (PV) in both groups, accompanied by improved \(\dot{V}\)O2max in HIT (HIT: from 39.5 ± 7.1 to 43.9 ± 5.5 mL kg−1 min−1; CMT: from 39.9 ± 5.9 to 41.7 ± 5.3 mL kg−1 min−1; P < 0.001). Resting LV function was not altered. However, increased exercise stroke volume (P = 0.02) and cardiac output (P = 0.02) were observed, secondary to increases in end-diastolic volume (P < 0.001). Numerous Doppler and speckle tracking indices of diastolic function were similarly enhanced during exercise in both training groups and were related to changes in PV.

Conclusion

Short-term HIT and CMT elicit rapid improvements in \(\dot{V}\)O2max and LV filling without global changes in cardiac performance at rest.

Keywords

Endurance training left ventricle High-intensity interval training Echocardiography 

Abbreviations

BMI

Body mass index

BP

Blood pressure

bpm

Beats per minute

BV

Blood volume

CMT

Continuous moderate-intensity training

CO

Cardiac output

ECG

Electrocardiogram

EDV

End-diastolic volume

E

Ejection fraction

ESV

End-systolic volume

Hct

Hematocrit

HIT

High-intensity interval training

HR

Heart rate

IVSd

Interventricular septum dimension during diastole

LV

Left ventricle or left ventricular

LVIDd

Internal diastolic diameter of the LV

LVIDs

Internal systolic diameter of the LV

LVPWDd

Left ventricular posterior wall thickness during diastole

PW

Pulsed wave

PV

Plasma volume

SBP/ES

Ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume; index of contractility

SV

Stroke volume

TD

Tissue Doppler imaging

\(\dot{V}\)O2max

Maximal oxygen consumption or maximal aerobic capacity

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Ms. Joan Persaud for her helpful technical assistance.

Conflict of interest

None.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sam Esfandiari
    • 1
  • Zion Sasson
    • 2
  • Jack M. Goodman
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical EducationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Division of CardiologyUniversity Hospital Network/Mount Sinai HospitalTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Heart and Stroke/Richard Lewar Centre of ExcellenceTorontoCanada

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