European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 12, pp 2925–2932 | Cite as

A single bout of downhill running transiently increases HOMA-IR without altering adipokine response in healthy adult women

  • A. Z. JamurtasEmail author
  • A. Garyfallopoulou
  • A. A. Theodorou
  • A. Zalavras
  • V. Paschalis
  • C. K. Deli
  • M. G. Nikolaidis
  • I. G. Fatouros
  • Y. Koutedakis
Original Article



Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage may cause marked alterations in insulin sensitivity. However, it is not entirely known whether such alterations are also related to changes in adipokine levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle damage due to downhill running on inflammation, insulin sensitivity and selected adipokines related to insulin regulation (adiponectin, visfatin, resistin).


Data were collected from 12 healthy adult women. Each subject participated in two trials, 4 weeks apart. The first trial was reserved for resting measurements only (control trial), while the second trial involved a 45-min exercise (−15 % slope, ~60 % of VO2max) intervention (exercise trial). Insulin sensitivity (HOMA), creatine kinase activity (CK), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), glucose, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin were assessed pre-exercise and 1, 2, 3, and 4 days post-exercise and during the same time points in the control trial.


Analyses revealed that CK, DOMS, TNF-α, IL-6, insulin and HOMA significantly increased (p < 0.05) throughout recovery (days 1–4). Adiponectin and visfatin remained unchanged, while resistin significantly increased (p < 0.05) only 2 days post-exercise. Visfatin was negatively correlated with HOMA at days 1 and 4 of recovery.


Although muscle damage due to downhill running caused a decline of insulin sensitivity, this response was not associated with the changes in adipokine levels.


Exercise Glucose Muscle damage Eccentric Cytokines 



Adiponectin receptors 1


Adiponectin receptors 2


Body mass index


Creatine kinase


Delayed onset of muscle soreness


Glucose transporter type 4


Homeostasis model assessment


Interleukin 6


Insulin receptor substrate 1


Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase


Peripheral blood mononuclear cells


Tumor necrosis factor-α


Oxygen consumption


Maximal oxygen consumption


Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Z. Jamurtas
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. Garyfallopoulou
    • 3
  • A. A. Theodorou
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Zalavras
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. Paschalis
    • 1
    • 2
  • C. K. Deli
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. G. Nikolaidis
    • 4
  • I. G. Fatouros
    • 2
    • 5
  • Y. Koutedakis
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Physical Education and Sport ScienceUniversity of ThessalyTrikalaGreece
  2. 2.Institute of Human Performance and RehabilitationCentre for Research and Technology–ThessalyVolosGreece
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and BiotechnologyUniversity of ThessalyLarissaGreece
  4. 4.Department of Physical Education and Sport ScienceAristotle University of ThessalonikiSerresGreece
  5. 5.Department of Physical Education and Sport ScienceUniversity of ThraceKomotiniGreece
  6. 6.School of Sports, Performing Arts and LeisureUniversity of WolverhamptonWolverhamptonUK

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