Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 7, pp 1859–1870 | Cite as

Physiological adaptations during endurance training below anaerobic threshold in rats

  • Gustavo Gomes de Araujo
  • Marcelo Papoti
  • Maria Andréia Delbin
  • Angelina Zanesco
  • Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
Original Article

Abstract

To assess the effects of continuous exercise training at intensities corresponding to 80 and 90 % of the lactate minimum test (LM), we evaluated antioxidant activity, hormone concentration, biochemical analyses and aerobic and anaerobic performance, as well as glycogen stores, during 12 weeks of swimming training in rats. One-hundred rats were separated into three groups: control (CG, n = 40), exercise at 80 (EG80, n = 30) and 90 % (EG90, n = 30) of LM. The training lasted 12 weeks, with sessions of 60 min/day, 6 days/week. The intensity was based at 80 and 90 % of the LM. The volume did not differ between training groups (\( {\dot{\text{X}}} \) of EG80 = 52 ± 4 min; \( {\dot{\text{X}}} \) of EG90 = 56 ± 2 min). The glycogen concentration (mg/100 mg) in the gastrocnemius increased after the training in EG80 (0.788 ± 0.118) and EG90 (0.795 ± 0.157) in comparison to the control (0.390 ± 0.132). The glycogen stores in the soleus enhanced after the training in EG90 (0.677 ± 0.230) in comparison to the control (0.343 ± 0.142). The aerobic performance increased by 43 and 34 % for EG80 and EG90, respectively, in relation to baseline. The antioxidant enzymes remain unchanged during the training. Creatine kinase (U/L) increased after 8 weeks in both groups (EG80 = 427.2 ± 97.4; EG90 = 641.1 ± 90.2) in relation to the control (246.9 ± 66.8), and corticosterone (ng/mL) increased after 12 weeks in EG90 (539 ± 54) in comparison to the control (362 ± 44). The continuous exercise at 80 and 90 % of the LM has a marked aerobic impact on endurance performance without significantly biomarkers changes compared to control.

Keywords

Training Performance Biomarkers Endurance Rats 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank FAPESP (04/01205-6; 06/58411-2) for the financial support.

References

  1. Armstrong LE, VanHeest JL (2002) The unknown mechanism of the overtraining syndrome: clues from depression and psychoneuroimmunology. Sports Med 32:185–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Billat VL, Sirvent P, Py G, Koralsztein JP, Mercier J (2003) The concept of maximal lactate steady state: a bridge between biochemistry, physiology and sport science. Sports Med 33:407–426Google Scholar
  3. Bocalini DS, Carvalho EV, de Sousa AF, Levy RF, Tucci PJ (2010) Exercise training-induced enhancement in myocardial mechanics is lost after 2 weeks of detraining in rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 109:909–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Booth FW, Laye MJ, Spangenburg EE (2010) Gold standards for scientists who are conducting animal-based exercise studies. J Appl Physiol 108:219–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brancaccio P, Maffulli N, Limongelli FM (2007) Creatine kinase monitoring in sport medicine. Br Med Bull 81–82:209–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cambri LT, Dalia RA, Ribeiro C, Rostom de Mello MA (2010) Aerobic capacity of rats recovered from fetal malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 35:490–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cambri LT, de Araujo GG, Ghezzi AC, Botezelli JD, Mello MA (2011) Metabolic responses to acute physical exercise in young rats recovered from fetal protein malnutrition with a fructose-rich diet. Lipids Health Dis 21(10):164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carrow RE, Brown RE, Van Huss WD (1967) Fiber sizes and capillary to fiber ratios in skeletal muscle of exercised rats. Anat Rec 159:33–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carvalho JF, Masuda MO, Pompeu FAMS (2005) Method for diagnosis and control of aerobic training in rats based on lactate threshold. Comp Biochem Physiol A 140:409–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clavel S, Farout L, Briand M, Briand Y, Jouanel P (2002) Effect of endurance training and/or fish oil supplemented diet on cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein in rat skeletal muscles and heart. Eur J Appl Physiol 87:193–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen D (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  12. Contarteze RVL, Manchado FB, Gobatto CA, Mello MAR (2008) Stress biomarkers in rats submitted to swimming and treadmill running exercises. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 151:415–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costill DL, Flynn MG, Kirwan JP, Houmard JA, Mitchell JB, Thomas R, Park SH (1988) Effects of repeated days of intensified training on muscle glycogen and swimming performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20:249–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Costill DL, Thomas R, Robergs RA, Pascoe D, Lambert C, Barr S, Fink WJ (1991) Adaptations to swimming training: influence of training volume. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:371–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dawson CA, Horvath SM (1970) Swimming in small laboratory animals. Med Sci Sports 2:51–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Araujo GG, Papoti M, Manchado FB, Mello MA, Gobatto CA (2007) Protocols for hyperlactatemia induction in the lactate minimum test adapted to swimming rats. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 148:888–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. de Araujo GG, Papoti M, Dos Reis IG, de Mello MA, Gobatto CA (2012) Physiological responses during linear periodized training in rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 112:839–852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dubois B, Gilles KA, Hamilton JK, Rebers PA (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugar and related substances. Anal Chem 8:350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Faude O, Kindermann W, Meyer T (2009) Lactate threshold concepts: how valid are they? Sports Med 39:469–490PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fitts RH, Costill DL, Gardetto PR (1989) Effect of swim exercise training on human muscle fiber function. J Appl Physiol 66:465–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Flynn MG, Pizza FX, Boone JB Jr, Andres FF, Michaud TA, Rodriguez-Zayas JR (1994) Indices of training stress during competitive running and swimming seasons. Int J Sports Med 15:21–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fry RW, Morton AR, Garcia-Webb P, Crawford GP, Keast D (1992) Biological responses to overload training in endurance sports. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 64:335–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. García-Pallarés J, García-Fernández M, Sánchez-Medina L, Izquierdo M (2010) Performance changes in world-class kayakers following two different training periodization models. Eur J Appl Physiol 110:99–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gobatto CA, de Mello MA, Sibuya CY, de Azevedo JR, dos Santos LA, Kokubun E (2001) Maximal lactate steady state in rats submitted to swimming exercise. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 130:21–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Habouzit E, Richard H, Sanchez H, Koulmann N, Serrurier B, Monnet R, Ventura-Clapier R, Bigard X (2009) Decreased muscle ACE activity enhances functional response to endurance training in rats, without change in muscle oxidative capacity or contractile phenotype. J Appl Physiol 107:346–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Halson SL, Jeukendrup AE (2004) Does overtraining exist? An analysis of overreaching and overtraining research. Sports Med 34:967–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hargreaves M (2004) Muscle glycogen and metabolic regulation. Proc Nutr Soc 63:217–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hohl R, Ferraresso RL, De Oliveira RB, Lucco R, Brenzikofer R, De Macedo DV (2009) Development and characterization of an overtraining animal model. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:1155–1163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Issurin VB (2010) New horizons for the methodology and physiology of training periodization. Sports Med 40:189–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ji LL (1999) Antioxidants and oxidative stress in exercise. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 222:283–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lambertucci RH, Levada-Pires AC, Rossoni LV, Curi R, Pithon-Curi TC (2007) Effects of aerobic exercise training on antioxidant enzyme activities and mRNA levels in soleus muscle from young and aged rats. Mech Ageing Dev 128:267–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Manchado FB, Gobatto CA, Voltarelli FA, Mello MAR (2006) Nonexhaustive test for aerobic capacity determination in swimming rats. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 31:731–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Meeusen R, Piacentini MF, Busschaert B, Buyse L, De Schutter G, Stray-Gundersen J (2004) Hormonal responses in athletes: the use of a two bout exercise protocol to detect subtle differences in (over)training status. Eur J Appl Physiol 91:140–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nakatani A, Han DH, Hansen PA, Nolte LA, Host HH, Hickner RC, Holloszy JO (1997) Effect of endurance exercise training on muscle glycogen supercompensation in rats. J Appl Physiol 82:711–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Nikolaidis MG, Jamurtas AZ (2009) Blood as a reactive species generator and redox status regulator during exercise. Arch Biochem Biophys 490:77–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pereira BC, Filho LA, Alves GF, Pauli JR, Ropelle ER, Souza CT, Cintra DE, Saad MJ, Silva AS (2012) A new overtraining protocol for mice based on downhill running sessions. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 39:793–798Google Scholar
  37. Pilis W, Zarzeczny R, Langfort J, Kaciuba-Uściłko H, Nazar K, Wojtyna J (1993) Anaerobic threshold in rats. Comp Biochem Physiol Comp Physiol 106:285–289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Powers SK, Criswell D, Lawler J, Ji LL, Martin D, Herb RA, Dudley G (1994) Influence of exercise and fiber type on antioxidant enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 266:R375–R380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Reis IGM, de Araujo GG, Gobatto CA (2011) Maximal lactate steady state in swimming rats by a body density-related method of workload quantification. Comp Exerc Physiol 7:179–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Seiler KS, Kjerland GØ (2006) Quantifying training intensity distribution in elite endurance athletes: is there evidence for an “optimal” distribution? Scand J Med Sci Sports 16:49–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tegtbur U, Busse MW, Braumann KM (1993) Estimation of an individual equilibrium between lactate production and catabolism during exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 25:620–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Urhausen A, Weiler B, Coen B, Kindermann W (1994) Plasma catecholamines during endurance exercise of different intensities as related to the individual anaerobic threshold. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 69:16–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vandenberghe K, Richter EA, Hespel P (1999) Regulation of glycogen breakdown by glycogen level in contracting rat muscle. Acta Physiol Scand 165:307–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Voltarelli FA, Gobatto CA, Mello MAR (2002) Determination of anaerobic threshold in rats using the lactate minimum test. Braz J Med Biol Res 35:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gustavo Gomes de Araujo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marcelo Papoti
    • 3
  • Maria Andréia Delbin
    • 4
  • Angelina Zanesco
    • 4
  • Claudio Alexandre Gobatto
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Sports Applied Physiology, School of Applied SciencesCampinas State University (UNICAMP)Santa Luiza, LimeiraBrazil
  2. 2.Sports Science Research GroupFederal University of Alagoas (UFAL)MaceióBrazil
  3. 3.School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirao PretoUniversity of Sao Paulo (USP)Ribeirao PretoBrazil
  4. 4.Sao Paulo State University (UNESP)Sao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations