European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 6, pp 1385–1394 | Cite as

Kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic adaptation to speed and resistance in double poling cross country skiing

  • Johnny Nilsson
  • Fredrik Tinmark
  • Kjartan Halvorsen
  • Anton Arndt
Original Article


This study incorporated variations in speed and the horizontal resistance acting upon elite female skiers during double poling (DP) on a treadmill and specifically analyzed biomechanical adaptations to these variations. Whole body kinematics and pole force data were recorded and used to calculate the moment of force acting on the shoulder and elbow joints. Data were obtained with a 3D optoelectronic system using reflective markers at given anatomical landmarks. Forces along the long axis of the right pole were measured with a piezoelectric force transducer. Surface electrodes were used to record EMG activity in the rectus femoris, rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi and triceps brachii muscles. In a first set of recordings, the participants double poled with zero elevation at five different speeds from 8 to 17 km h−1. In a second set of recordings, horizontal resistance was added by weights (0.4–1.9 kg) attached to a pulley system pulling the skier posteriorly during DP at 14 km h−1. Results showed increasing relative duration of the thrust phase with increasing resistance, but not with speed. Significant kinematic differences occurred with increase in both speed and resistance. The mean (±SD) horizontal force components ranged between 1.7 (±1.3) and 2.8 (±1.1) percent (%) bodyweight (BW) in the speed adaptation and 3.1 (±0.6) and 4.0 (±1.3) % BW in the adaptation to horizontal resistance. Peak muscle activity showed a central to peripheral (proximo-distal) activation sequence. The temporal cycle phase pattern in the adaptation to speed and horizontal resistance differed.


Cross country skiing Double poling Resistance Speed Joint moments 



The authors would like to thank Olga Tarassova for her assistance with data and statistical analysis.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest relating to this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johnny Nilsson
    • 1
    • 5
  • Fredrik Tinmark
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kjartan Halvorsen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Anton Arndt
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.GIH The Swedish School of Sport and Health SciencesStockholmSweden
  2. 2.CLINTEC InstitutionKarolinska InstituteStockholmSweden
  3. 3.KTH Royal Institute of TechnologySchool of Technology and HealthStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Department of Information TechnologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden
  5. 5.NIH, The Norwegian School of Sport SciencesOsloNorway

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