Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 5, pp 1331–1341 | Cite as

The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles

  • M. F. Higgins
  • J. Tallis
  • M. J. Price
  • R. S. James
Original Article

Abstract

This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO3 ] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO3 ] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO3-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO3-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO3 on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO3 did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO3 supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO3 has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

Keywords

Work loop Buffer capacity Skeletal muscle Force production Metabolic alkalosis Ergogenic aids 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Mark Bodycote and Bethan Grist for technical assistance.

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, are declared by the author(s).

References

  1. Allen DG, Lamb GD, Westerblad H (2008) Skeletal muscle fatigue: cellular mechanisms. Physiol Rev 88:287–332. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00015.2007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Askew GN, Marsh RL (1997) The effects of length trajectory on the mechanical power output of mouse skeletal muscles. J Exp Biol 200:3119–3131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Askew GN, Young IS, Altringham JD (1997) Fatigue of mouse soleus muscle, using the work loop technique. J Exp Biol 200:2907–2912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barclay CJ (2005) Modelling diffusive O(2) supply to isolated preparations of mammalian skeletal and cardiac muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 26:225–235. doi: 10.1007/s10974-005-9013-x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Begum G, Cunliffe A, Leveritt M (2005) Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15:493–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bishop DJ, Thomas C, Moore-Morris T, Tonkonogi M, Sahlin K, Mercier J (2010) Sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to training improves mitochondrial adaptations in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299:E225–E233. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00738.2009 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Broch-Lips M, Overgaard K, Praetorius HA, Nielsen OB (2007) Effects of extracellular HCO3(−) on fatigue, pHi, and K+ efflux in rat skeletal muscles. J Appl Physiol 103:494–503. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00049.2007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brooks SV, Faulkner JA (1988) Contractile properties of skeletal muscles from young, adult and aged mice. J Physiol 404:71–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cameron SL, McLay-Cooke RT, Brown RC, Gray AR, Fairbairn KA (2010) Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 20:307–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carter JE, Ackland TR, Kerr DA, Stapff AB (2005) Somatotype and size of elite female basketball players. J Sports Sci 23:1057–1063. doi: 10.1080/02640410400023233 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheetham ME, Boobis LH, Brooks S, Williams C (1986) Human muscle metabolism during sprint running. J Appl Physiol 61:54–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dennig H, Talbot JT, Edwards HT, Dill DB (1931) Effects of acidosis and alkalosis upon capacity for work. J Clin Invest 9(4):601–613. doi: 10.1172/JCI100324 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C (2006) Effects of chronic NaHCO3 ingestion during interval training on changes to muscle buffer capacity, metabolism, and short-term endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 101:918–925. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01534.2005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fletcher WM, Hopkins FG (1907) Lactic acid in amphibian muscle. Lactic acid in amphibian muscle. J Physiol 35(4):247–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Gastin PB, Costill DL, Lawson DL, Krzeminski K, McConell GK (1995) Accumulated oxygen deficit during supramaximal all-out and constant intensity exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hill AV, Kupalov P (1929) Anaerobic and aerobic activity in isolated muscle. Proc R Soc Lond B 105:313–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hopkins WG, Schabort EJ, Hawley JA (2001) Reliability of power in physical performance tests. Sports Med 31:211–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Howell D (2007) Statistical methods for psychology, 6th edn. Thomson Wadsworth, USAGoogle Scholar
  19. James RS, Altringham JD, Goldspink DF (1995) The mechanical properties of fast and slow skeletal muscles of the mouse in relation to their locomotory function. J Exp Biol 198:491–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. James RS, Wilson RS, Askew GN (2004) Effects of caffeine on mouse skeletal muscle power output during recovery from fatigue. J Appl Physiol 96:545–552. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00696.2003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. James RS, Kohlsdorf T, Cox VM, Navas CA (2005) 70 microM caffeine treatment enhances in vitro force and power output during cyclic activities in mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol 95:74–82. doi: 10.1007/s00421-005-1396-2 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Josephson RK (1985) Mechanical power output from striated muscle during cyclic contraction. J Exp Biol 114:493–512Google Scholar
  23. Josephson RK (1993) Contraction dynamics and power output of skeletal muscle. Annu Rev Physiol 55:527–546. doi: 10.1146/annurev.ph.55.030193.002523 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Linderman J, Fahey TD (1991) Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and exercise performance. An update. Sports Med 11:71–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Linderman JK, Gosselink KL (1994) The effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on exercise performance. Sports Med 18:75–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lindh AM, Peyrebrune MC, Ingham SA, Bailey DM, Folland JP (2008) Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance. Int J Sports Med 29:519–523. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-989228 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJ, Spriet LL (1990) Effects of alkalosis on muscle ions at rest and with intense exercise. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 68:820–829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. MacLaren DPM, Morgan GD (1985) Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on maximal exercise. Proc Nutr Soc 44:26AGoogle Scholar
  29. Matson LG, Tran ZV (1993) Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on anaerobic performance: a meta-analytic review. Int J Sport Nutr 3:2–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McNaughton LR (1992) Bicarbonate ingestion: effects of dosage on 60 s cycle ergometry. J Sports Sci 10:415–423. doi: 10.1080/02640419208729940 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McNaughton LR, Ford S, Newbold C (1997) Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion in high-intensity exercise in moderately trained women. J Strength Cond Res 11(2):98–102Google Scholar
  32. McNaughton LR, Siegler J, Midgley A (2008) Ergogenic effects of sodium bicarbonate. Curr Sports Med Rep 7:230–236. doi: 10.1249/JSR.0b013e31817ef530 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Méndez J, Keys A (1960) Density and composition of mammalian muscle. Metabolism 9:184–188Google Scholar
  34. Price MJ, Simons C (2010) The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on high-intensity intermittent running and subsequent performance. J Strength Cond Res 24:1834–1842. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e06e4a PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Price MJ, Singh M (2008) Time course of blood bicarbonate and pH three hours after sodium bicarbonate ingestion. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 3:240–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Renfree A (2007) The time course for changes in plasma [h+] after sodium bicarbonate ingestion. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Requena B, Zabala M, Padial P, Feriche B (2005) Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids? J Strength Cond Res 19:213–224. doi: 10.1519/13733.1 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Saunders B, Sale C, Harris RC, Sunderland C (2011) Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on cycling capacity at 110 % of maximum power output. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43(5):847Google Scholar
  39. Spriet LL, Matsos CG, Peters SJ, Heigenhauser GJ, Jones NL (1985) Effects of acidosis on rat muscle metabolism and performance during heavy exercise. Am J Physiol 248:C337–C347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Spriet LL, Lindinger MI, Heigenhauser GJ, Jones NL (1986) Effects of alkalosis on skeletal muscle metabolism and performance during exercise. Am J Physiol 251:R833–R839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Tallis J, James RS, Cox VM, Duncan MJ (2012) The effect of physiological concentrations of caffeine on the power output of maximally and submaximally stimulated mouse EDL (fast) and soleus (slow) muscle. J Appl Physiol 112:64–71. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00801.2011 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thomas C, Perrey S, Lambert K, Hugon G, Mornet D, Mercier J (2005) Monocarboxylate transporters, blood lactate removal after supramaximal exercise, and fatigue indexes in humans. J Appl Physiol 98:804–809. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01057.2004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thomas C, Bishop D, Moore-Morris T, Mercier J (2007) Effects of high-intensity training on MCT1, MCT4, and NBC expressions in rat skeletal muscles: influence of chronic metabolic alkalosis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293:E916–E922. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00164.2007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vassilakos G, James RS, Cox VM (2009) Effect of stimulation frequency on force, net power output, and fatigue in mouse soleus muscle in vitro. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 87:203–210. doi: 10.1139/y09-002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. Higgins
    • 1
  • J. Tallis
    • 1
  • M. J. Price
    • 1
  • R. S. James
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biomolecular and Sports ScienceCoventry UniversityCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations