Supra-physiological doses of testosterone affect membrane oxidation of human neutrophils monitored by the fluorescent probe C11-BODIPY581/591
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of supra-physiological doses of testosterone (TES) on membrane oxidation of activated human neutrophils in vitro using an innovative and sensitive technique: the real-time detection with the fluorescence probe C11-BODIPY581/591. Methodological controls were performed with the lipid-soluble and powerful antioxidant astaxanthin at different neutrophil density cultures. Neutrophils from nine healthy young men (23.4 ± 2.5 years, 174.4 ± 7.0 cm height, and 78.3 ± 7.0 kg weight) were isolated and treated with 0.1 or 10 μM TES for 24 h and subsequently labeled with the free radical-sensitive probe C11-BODIPY581/591 for monitoring membrane oxidation after neutrophil activation with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). First-order exponential decay kinetic indicated that both 0.1 and 10 μM TES severely increased baseline membrane oxidation in non-activated human neutrophils (compared to control). However, similar kinetics of membrane oxidation were observed in control and 0.1 μM TES-treated neutrophils after PMA activation, whereas chemical activation did not alter the baseline higher rates of membrane oxidation in 10 μM TES-treated neutrophils. The data presented here support the hypothesis that TES exerts distinct effects on the membrane oxidation of human neutrophils, depending on its dose (here, 102 to 104-fold higher than physiological levels in men) and on PMA activation of the oxidative burst. Furthermore, this paper also presents an innovative application of the free radical-sensitive probe C11-BODIPY581/591 for monitoring (auto-induced) membrane oxidation as an important parameter of viability and, thus, responsiveness of immune cells in inflammatory processes.
KeywordsLipoperoxidation Steroid Astaxanthin Antioxidant Immune Oxidative stress
Reactive oxygen/nitrogen species
Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
Vascular smooth muscle cells