European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 113, Issue 4, pp 869–875 | Cite as

Exercise-induced endocannabinoid signaling is modulated by intensity

  • David A. RaichlenEmail author
  • Adam D. Foster
  • Alexandre Seillier
  • Andrea Giuffrida
  • Gregory L. Gerdeman
Original Article


Endocannabinoids (eCB) are endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors that are densely expressed in brain networks responsible for reward. Recent work shows that exercise activates the eCB system in humans and other mammals, suggesting eCBs are partly responsible for the reported improvements in mood and affect following aerobic exercise in humans. However, exercise-induced psychological changes reported by runners are known to be dependent on exercise intensity, suggesting that any underlying molecular mechanism should also change with varying levels of exercise intensity. Here, we examine circulating levels of eCBs following aerobic exercise (treadmill running) in recreationally fit human runners at four different intensities. We show that eCB signaling is indeed intensity dependent, with significant changes in circulating eCBs observed following moderate intensities only (very high and very low intensity exercises do not significantly alter circulating eCB levels). Our results are consistent with intensity-dependent psychological state changes with exercise and therefore support the hypothesis that eCB activity is related to neurobiological effects of exercise. Thus, future studies examining the role of exercise-induced eCB signaling on neurobiology or physiology must take exercise intensity into account.


AEA 2-AG Positive affect Endurance running Neurogenesis Analgesia 



The staff of the Clinical and Translational Science Research Center at the University of Arizona assisted with data collection. This project was supported by NSF BCS 0820270 and a Wenner Gren Foundation Hunt Post-Doctoral Fellowship to D.A.R.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Raichlen
    • 1
    Email author
  • Adam D. Foster
    • 1
  • Alexandre Seillier
    • 2
  • Andrea Giuffrida
    • 2
  • Gregory L. Gerdeman
    • 3
  1. 1.School of AnthropologyUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterSan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Department of BiologyEckerd CollegeSt. PetersburgUSA

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