European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 112, Issue 7, pp 2523–2530 | Cite as

Swim training does not protect mice from skeletal muscle oxidative damage following a maximum exercise test

  • Tatiane Oliveira Barreto
  • Lorena Sabino Cleto
  • Carolina Rosa Gioda
  • Renata Sabino Silva
  • Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo
  • Junia de Sousa-Franco
  • José Carlos de Magalhães
  • Claudia Lopes Penaforte
  • Kelerson Mauro de Castro Pinto
  • Jader dos Santos Cruz
  • Etel Rocha-VieiraEmail author
Original Article


We investigated whether swim training protects skeletal muscle from oxidative damage in response to a maximum progressive exercise. First, we investigated the effect of swim training on the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the gastrocnemius muscle of C57Bl/6 mice, 48 h after the last training session. Mice swam for 90 min, twice a day, for 5 weeks at 31°C (±1°C). The activities of SOD and CAT were increased in trained mice (P < 0.05) compared to untrained group. However, no effect of training was observed in the activity of GPx. In a second experiment, trained and untrained mice were submitted to a maximum progressive swim test. Compared to control mice (untrained, not acutely exercised), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice after maximum swim. The activity of GPx was increased in the skeletal muscle of both trained and untrained mice, while SOD activity was increased only in trained mice after maximum swimming. CAT activity was increased only in the untrained compared to the control group. Although the trained mice showed increased activity of citrate synthase in skeletal muscle, swim performance was not different compared to untrained mice. Our results show an imbalance in the activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in response to swim training, which could account for the oxidative damage observed in the skeletal muscle of trained mice in response to maximum swim, resulting in the absence of improved exercise performance.


Swim Oxidative stress Superoxide dismutase Catalase Glutathione peroxidase Exercise performance 



This work was supported by FAPEMIG grant number CDSAPQ-4263-5.01/07.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatiane Oliveira Barreto
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lorena Sabino Cleto
    • 1
  • Carolina Rosa Gioda
    • 7
  • Renata Sabino Silva
    • 1
  • Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo
    • 1
    • 3
  • Junia de Sousa-Franco
    • 1
  • José Carlos de Magalhães
    • 4
  • Claudia Lopes Penaforte
    • 1
  • Kelerson Mauro de Castro Pinto
    • 5
  • Jader dos Santos Cruz
    • 2
  • Etel Rocha-Vieira
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biological, Environmental and Health SciencesUniversity Center of Belo HorizonteBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratory of Excitable Membranes, Department of Biochemistry and ImmunologyUFMGBelo HorizonteBrazil
  3. 3.Laboratory of Diagnosis Biomarkers and Monitoration, René Rachou Research CenterOswaldo Cruz FoundationBelo HorizonteBrazil
  4. 4.Federal University of São João del ReySão João del ReyBrazil
  5. 5.CEDUFOP, Federal University of Ouro PretoOuro PretoBrazil
  6. 6.Laboratory of ImmunologyFederal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri ValleysDiamantinaBrazil
  7. 7.Biological Science InstituteFederal University of Rio Grande, Carreiros CampusRio GrandeBrazil

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