European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 111, Issue 10, pp 2451–2459

Transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation: influence of electrode positioning and stimulus amplitude settings on muscle response

  • M. Gobbo
  • P. Gaffurini
  • L. Bissolotti
  • F. Esposito
  • C. Orizio
Original Article

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of two different transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation procedures on evoked muscle torque and local tissue oxygenation. In the first one (MP mode), the cathode was facing the muscle main motor point and stimulus amplitude was set to the level eliciting the maximal myoelectrical activation according to the amplitude of the evoked electromyogram (EMG); in the second one (RC mode), the electrodes were positioned following common reference charts for electrode placement while stimulus amplitude was set according to subject tolerance. Tibialis Anterior (TA) and Vastus Lateralis (VL) muscles of 10 subjects (28.4 ± 8.2 years) were tested in specific dynamometers to measure the evoked isometric torque. The EMG and near-infrared spectroscopy probes were placed on muscle belly to detect the electrical activity and local metabolic modifications of the stimulated muscle, respectively. The stimulation protocol consisted of a gradually increasing frequency ramp from 2 to 50 Hz in 7.5 s. Compared to RC mode, in MP mode the contractile parameters (peak twitch, tetanic torque, area under the torque build-up) and the metabolic solicitation (oxygen consumption and hyperemia due to metabolites accumulation) resulted significantly higher for both TA and VL muscles. MP mode resulted also to be more comfortable for the subjects. Based on the assumption that proper mechanical and metabolic stimuli are necessary to induce muscle strengthening, our results witness the importance of an optimized, i.e., comfortable and effective, stimulation to promote the aforementioned muscle adaptive modifications.

Keywords

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation Motor point Near-infrared spectroscopy Muscle strengthening 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Gobbo
    • 1
    • 2
  • P. Gaffurini
    • 2
    • 3
  • L. Bissolotti
    • 2
  • F. Esposito
    • 4
  • C. Orizio
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical Sciences and BiotechnologiesUniversity of BresciaBresciaItaly
  2. 2.Laboratory of Neuromuscular Rehabilitation (LaRiN), Domus SalutisBresciaItaly
  3. 3.Faculty of Motor SciencesUniversity of VeronaVeronaItaly
  4. 4.Department of Sport, Nutrition and Health SciencesUniversity of MilanMilanItaly

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