Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 112, Issue 3, pp 871–876 | Cite as

Aerobic fitness testing in 6- to 9-year-old children: reliability and validity of a modified Yo–Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test

  • T. AhlerEmail author
  • M. Bendiksen
  • P. Krustrup
  • N. Wedderkopp
Original Article

Abstract

This study analysed the reliability and validity of two intermittent running tests (the Yo–Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test) as tools for estimating VO2max in children under the age of 10. Two groups, aged 6–7 years (grade 0, n = 18) and 8–9 years (grade 2, n = 16), carried out two repetitions of a modified Yo–Yo IR1 test (2 × 16 m) and the Andersen test, as well as an incremental treadmill test, to directly determine the VO2max. No significant differences were observed in test–retest performance of the Yo–Yo IR1 test [693 ± 418 (±SD) and 670 ± 328 m, r 2 = 0.79, CV = 19%, p > 0.05, n = 32) and the Andersen test (988 ± 77 and 989 ± 87 m, r 2 = 0.86, CV = 3%, p > 0.05, n = 31). The Yo–Yo IR1 (r 2 = 0.47, n = 31, p < 0.002) and Andersen test performance (r 2 = 0.53, n = 32, p < 0.001) correlated with the VO2max. Yo–Yo IR1 performance correlated with Andersen test performance (r 2 = 0.74, n = 32, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the Yo–Yo IR1 and the Andersen tests are reproducible and can be used as an indicator of aerobic fitness for 6- to 9-year-old children.

Keywords

VO2max Intermittent running Field tests Treadmill test Girls Boys 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the participants for their contribution and enthusiasm, as well as the teachers and schools for their support. The project was partially financed with funding from the Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences of the University of Copenhagen, with kind assistance from Team Denmark and the Center for Research in Childhood Health, at the University of Southern Denmark.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest with regard to this manuscript.

References

  1. Andersen LB, Harro M, Sardinha LB et al (2006) Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 368:299–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersen LB, Andersen TE, Andersen E, Anderssen SA (2008a) An intermittent running test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake: the Andersen test. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 48:434–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen LB, Sardinha LB, Froberg K, Riddoch CJ, Page AS, Anderssen SA (2008b) Fitness, fatness and clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in children from Denmark, Estonia and Portugal: the European Youth Heart Study. Int J Pediatr Obes 3(Suppl 1):58–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson G, Nevill AM (1998) Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Med 26:217–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bangsbo J, Serritslev F (1993) Yo-yo testene. Danmarks Idræts, ForbundGoogle Scholar
  6. Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P (2007) Metabolic response and fatigue in soccer. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2:111–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P (2008) The Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test: a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med 38:37–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bendiksen M, Ahler T, Shumikhin D, Brito J, Wedderkopp N, Krustrup P (2011) Aerobic fitness and maximal heart rate testing in 6–9 yr old children: reliability, sensitivity and validity of the Yo–Yo IR1 test and the Andersen test. 7th World Congress on Science and Football, Nagoya, Japan. Book of abstracts, p 106Google Scholar
  9. Bendixen H (2004) Major increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1987 and 2001 among Danish adults. Obes Res 12:1464–1472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bland JM, Altman DG (1986) Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet 1:307–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Henriksson J, Reitman JS (1977) Time course of changes in human skeletal muscle succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities and maximal oxygen uptake with physical activity and inactivity. Acta Physiol Scand 99:91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Krustrup P, Bangsbo J (2001) Physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training. J Sports Sci 19:881–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Amstrup TT (2003) The Yo–Yo intermittent recovery test: physiological response, reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:695–705Google Scholar
  14. Krustrup P, Hellsten Y, Bangsbo J (2004) Intense interval training enhances human skeletal muscle oxygen uptake in the initial phase of dynamic exercise at high but not at low intensities. J Physiol 559:335–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Ellingsgaard H, Bangsbo J (2005) Physical demands during an elite female soccer game: importance of training status. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1242–1248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee CD, Jackson AS, Blair SN (1998) US weight guidelines: is it also important to consider cardiorespiratory fitness? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22(Suppl 2):S2–S7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee DC, Sui X, Church TS, Lee IM, Blair SN (2009) Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with risks of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care 32:257–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Leger LA, Lambert J (1982) A maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test to predict VO2 max. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 49:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leger LA, Mercier D, Gadoury C, Lambert J (1988) The multistage 20 metre shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. J Sports Sci 6:93–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Rowland TW (2005) Children’s exercise physiology. Human Kinetics, LeedsGoogle Scholar
  21. Wessel TR, Arant CB, Olson MB et al (2004) Relationship of physical fitness vs body mass index with coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events in women. JAMA 292:1179–1187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. WHO (2003) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a joint WHO/FAO expert consultationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Ahler
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Bendiksen
    • 2
  • P. Krustrup
    • 2
  • N. Wedderkopp
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PhysiotherapyUniversity College LillebaeltOdense SØDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Exercise and Sport SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Centre for Research in Childhood HealthUniversity of Southern DenmarkOdenseDenmark

Personalised recommendations