European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 111, Issue 9, pp 2105–2114 | Cite as

Effect of a 2-h hyperglycemic–hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp to promote glucose storage on endurance exercise performance

  • D. P. M. MacLaren
  • H. Mohebbi
  • M. Nirmalan
  • M. A. Keegan
  • C. T. Best
  • D. Perera
  • M. N. Harvie
  • I. T. Campbell
Original Article


Carbohydrate stores within muscle are considered essential as a fuel for prolonged endurance exercise, and regimes for enhancing such stores have proved successful in aiding performance. This study explored the effects of a hyperglycaemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp performed 18 h previously on subsequent prolonged endurance performance in cycling. Seven male subjects, accustomed to prolonged endurance cycling, performed 90 min of cycling at ~65% VO2max followed by a 16-km time trial 18 h after a 2-h hyperglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp (HCC). Hyperglycemia (10 mM) with insulin infused at 300 mU/m2/min over a 2-h period resulted in a total glucose uptake of 275 g (assessed by the area under the curve) of which glucose storage accounted for about 73% (i.e. 198 g). Patterns of substrate oxidation during 90-min exercise at 65% VO2max were not altered by HCC. Blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were higher during exercise after HCC compared with control (p < 0.05) while plasma NEFA was similar. Exercise performance was improved by 49 s and power output was 10–11% higher during the time trial (p < 0.05) after HCC. These data suggest that carbohydrate loading 18 h previously by means of a 2-h HCC improves cycling performance by 3.3% without any change in pattern of substrate oxidation.


Hyperglycemia Hyperinsulinemia Glucose clamp Metabolism Performance 


  1. Acheson KJ, Flatt JP, Jequier E (1982) Glycogen synthesis versus lipogenesis after a 500 gram carbohydrate meal in man. Met Clin Exp 31:1234–1240Google Scholar
  2. Bergstrom J, Hultman E (1967) A study of glycogen metabolism during exercise in man. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 19:218–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bergstrom J, Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B (1967) Diet, muscle glycogen and physical performance. Acta Physiol Scand 71:140–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Björntorp P, Sjöstrom L (1978) Carbohydrate storage in man: speculations and some quantitative considerations. Metab Clin Exp 27:1853–1865PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Björntorp P, Berchtold P, Holm J, Larsson B (1971) The glucose uptake of human adipose tissue in obesity. Eur J Clin Invest 1:480–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bosch AN, Dennis SC, Noakes TD (1993) Influence of carbohydrate loading on fuel substrate turnover and oxidation during prolonged exercise. J Appl Physiol 74:1921–1927PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bourey RE, Kohrt WM, Kirwan JP, Staten MA, King DS, Holloszy JO (1993) Relationship between glucose tolerance and glucose-stimulated insulin response in 65 year-olds. J Gerontol 48:M122–M127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bussau VA, Fairchild TJ, Rao A, Steele P, Fournier PA (2002) Carbohydrate loading in human muscle: an improved 1 day protocol. Eur J Appl Physiol 87:290–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chisholm DM, Collis ML, Kulak LL, Davenport W, Gruber N (1975) Physical activity readiness. Br Columb Med J 17:375–378Google Scholar
  10. Claassen A, Lambert EV, Bosch AN, Rodger IM, St Clair Gibson A, Noakes TD (2005) Variability in exercise capacity and metabolic response during endurance exercise after a low carbohydrate diet. Int J Sports Nutr Exerc Metab 15:97–116Google Scholar
  11. Coyle EF, Coggan AR, Hemmert MK, Ivy JL (1986) Muscle glycogen utilization during prolonged strenuous exercise when fed carbohydrate. J Appl Physiol 61:165–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. DeFronzo RA, Tobin JD, Andres R (1979) Glucose clamp technique: a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. Am J Physiol 237:E214–E223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. DeFronzo RA, Jacot E, Jequier E, Maeder E, Wahren J, Felber JP (1981) The effect of insulin on the disposal of intravenous glucose. Diabetes 30:1000–1007PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dill DB, Costill DL (1974) Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37:247–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Fairchild TJ, Fletcher S, Steele P, Goodman C, Dawson B, Fournier PA (2002) Rapid carbohydrate loading after a short bout of near maximal-intensity exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:980–986PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferrannini F, Locatelli L, Jequier E, Felber JP (1989) Differential effects of insulin and hyperglycemia on intracellular glucose disposition in humans. Metabolism 38:459–465PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frayn KN (1983) Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange. J Appl Physiol 55:628–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Frayn KN, MacDonald IA (1997) Assessment of substrate and energy metabolism in vivo. In: Draznin B, Rizza R (eds) Methods, assessment, and metabolic regulation. Clin Res Diabetes and Obesity 1:101–124Google Scholar
  19. Gholfaili A, Fung M, Ao ZL, Meloche M, Shapiro RJ, Warnock GL et al (2007) Effect of exenatide on beta cell function after islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes. Transplantation 83:24–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Green CJ, Campbell IT, O’Sullivan E et al (1995) Septic patients in multiple organ failure can oxidise infused glucose, but non-oxidative disposal (storage) is impaired. Clin Sci 89:601–609PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hansen BF, Asp S, Kiens B, Richter EA (1999) Glycogen concentration in human skeletal muscle: effect of prolonged insulin and glucose infusion. Scand J Med Sci Sports 9:209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hargreaves M, McConell G, Proietto J (1995) Influence of muscle glycogen on glycogenolysis and glucose uptake during exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 78:288–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hellerstein MK, Christiansen M, Kaempfe S (1991) Measurement of de novo hepatic lipogenesis in humans using stable isotopes. J Clin Invest 87:1841–1852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hermansen L, Hultman E, Saltin B (1967) Muscle glycogen during prolonged severe exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 71:129–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson NA, Stannard SR, Chapman PG, Thompson MW (2006) Effect of altered pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on selection and perception of effort during prolonged cycling. Eur J Appl Physiol 98:62–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karlsson J, Saltin B (1971) Diet, muscle glycogen, and endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 31:203–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Knapik JJ, Meredith CN, Jones BH, Suek L, Young VR, Evans WJ (1988) Influence of fasting on carbohydrate and fat metabolism during rest and exercise in men. J Appl Physiol 64:1923–1929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lamb DR, Snyder AC, Baur TS (1991) Muscle glycogen loading with a liquid carbohydrate supplement. Int J Sports Nutr 1:52–60Google Scholar
  29. Madsen K, Pedersen PK, Rose P, Richter EA (1990) Carbohydrate supercompensation and muscle glycogen utilization during exhaustive running in highly trained athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol 61:467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McGuire EAH, Helderman JH, Toloin JD, Andres R, Berman M (1976) Effects of arterial versus venous sampling on analysis of glucose kinetics in man. J Appl Physiol 41:565–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Montain SJ, Hopper MK, Coggan AR, Coyle EF (1991) Exercise metabolism at different time intervals after a meal. J Appl Physiol 70:882–888PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Noakes TD, St Clair Gibson A, Lambert VA (2004) From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans. Br J Sports Med 38:511–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rauch LHG, Rodger I, Wilson GR, Belonje JD, Dennis SC, Noakes TD, Hawley JA (1995) The effects of carbohydrate loading on muscle glycogen content and cycling performance. Int J Sport Nutr 5:25–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Richter EA, Galbo H (1986) High glycogen levels enhance glycogen breakdown in isolated contracting skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 61:827–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Sherman WM, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Miller JM (1981) Effect of exercise-diet manipulation on muscle glycogen and its subsequent utilization during performance. Int J Sports Med 2:114–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shulman GI, Rothman DL, Jue T, Stein P, DeFronzo RA, Shulman RG (1990) Quantitation of muscle glycogen synthesis in normal subjects and subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. N Engl J Med 322:223–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. St Clair Gibson A, Lambert VA, Rauch LHG, Tucker R, Baden DA, Foster C, Noakes TD (2006) The role of information processing between brain and peripheral physiological systems in pacing and perception of effort. Sports Med 36:705–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Whitley HA, Humphreys SM, Campbell IT et al (1998) Metabolic and performance responses during endurance exercise after high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals. J Appl Physiol 85:418–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Widrick JJ, Costill DL, Fink WJ, Hickey MS, McConell GK, Tanaka H (1993) Carbohydrate feedings and exercise performance: effect of initial muscle glycogen concentration. J Appl Physiol 74:2998–3005PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. P. M. MacLaren
    • 1
  • H. Mohebbi
    • 2
  • M. Nirmalan
    • 2
  • M. A. Keegan
    • 2
  • C. T. Best
    • 2
  • D. Perera
    • 2
  • M. N. Harvie
    • 2
  • I. T. Campbell
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute for Sport & Exercise SciencesLiverpool John Moores UniversityLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of AnaesthesiaWythenshawe HospitalManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations