European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 111, Issue 9, pp 1965–1971 | Cite as

Creatine supplementation attenuates hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses following an acute bout of isokinetic exercise

  • Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez
  • Ralph Wieder
  • Jeong-Su Kim
  • Florence Vicil
  • Arturo Figueroa
Original Article

Abstract

Arterial stiffness and hemodynamics may be increased following a bout of resistance exercise. Oral creatine supplementation (Cr) may attenuate cardiovascular responses after exercise via improved anaerobic metabolism. This study was aimed to determine the effect of Cr on hemodynamic and arterial stiffness responses after acute isokinetic exercise. Sixteen healthy males (22.6 ± 0.6 year) were randomly assigned to either placebo (Pl, n = 8) or Cr (n = 8) (2 × 5 g/day) for 3 weeks. Brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and leg PWV were measured in the supine position at rest before and after the interventions. After the supplementation period, parameters were also measured 5 min (PE5) and 15 min (PE15) after two sets of leg isokinetic exercise. There was no difference between the groups in resting measurements before and after the supplementation. Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had attenuated (P < 0.05) increases in SBP at PE5 (Pl 14.0 ± 2.5, Cr 5.6 ± 2.3 mmHg), HR at both P5 (Pl 28 ± 4 vs. Cr 16 ± 2 beats/min) and PE15 (Pl 21 ± 3, Cr 11 ± 2 beats/min) and rate pressure product at P5 (Pl 45.8 ± 6.4, Cr 24.8 ± 2.2) and P15 (Pl 34.2 ± 5.0, Cr 15.9 ± 6.0). Compared with the Pl group, the Cr group had suppressed increases in baPWV at PE5 (Pl 1.5 ± 0.4, Cr −0.1 ± 0.4 m/s) and PE15 (Pl 1.1 ± 0.2, Cr −0.3 ± 0.3 m/s) and returned SBP to pre-exercise values at PE15 (Pl 10.6 ± 2.8, Cr 2.1 ± 2.6 mmHg). PWV in the exercised leg decreased at PE5 in both groups. These findings suggest that Cr supplementation attenuates the hemodynamic and baPWV responses after acute isokinetic exercise.

Keywords

Arterial stiffness Pulse wave velocity Blood pressure Creatine supplementation Isokinetic exercise Post-exercise 

References

  1. Andrews R, Greenhaff P, Curtis S, Perry A, Cowley AJ (1998) The effect of dietary creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle metabolism in congestive heart failure. Eur Heart J 19:617–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arciero PJ, Hannibal NS III, Nindl BC, Gentile CL, Hamed J, Vukovich MD (2001) Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism 50:1429–1434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Campbell R, Fisher JP, Sharman JE, McDonnell BJ, Frenneaux MP (2010) Contribution of nitric oxide to the blood pressure and arterial responses to exercise in humans. J Hum Hypertens. doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.53
  4. Chevalier L, Hajjar M, Douard H, Cherief A, Dindard JM, Sedze F, Ricard R, Vincent MP, Corneloup L, Gencel L, Carre F (2009) Sports-related acute cardiovascular events in a general population: a French prospective study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 16:365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cui J, Mascarenhas V, Moradkhan R, Blaha C, Sinoway LI (2008) Effects of muscle metabolites on responses of muscle sympathetic nerve activity to mechanoreceptor(s) stimulation in healthy humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294:R458–R466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davies TS, Frenneaux MP, Campbell RI, White MJ (2007) Human arterial responses to isometric exercise: the role of the muscle metaboreflex. Clin Sci (Lond) 112:441–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeVan AE, Anton MM, Cook JN, Neidre DB, Cortez-Cooper MY, Tanaka H (2005) Acute effects of resistance exercise on arterial compliance. J Appl Physiol 98:2287–2291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fahs CA, Heffernan KS, Fernhall B (2009) Hemodynamic and vascular response to resistance exercise with l-arginine. Med Sci Sports Exerc 41:773–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Figueroa A, Baynard T, Fernhall B, Carhart R, Kanaley JA (2007) Endurance training improves post-exercise cardiac autonomic modulation in obese women with and without type 2 diabetes. Eur J Appl Physiol 100:437–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Figueroa A, Gil R, Sanchez-Gonzalez MA (2010) Whole-body vibration attenuates the increase in leg arterial stiffness and aortic systolic blood pressure during post-exercise muscle ischemia. Eur J Appl Physiol. doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1746-6
  11. Gilliam JD, Hohzorn C, Martin D, Trimble MH (2000) Effect of oral creatine supplementation on isokinetic torque production. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32:993–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goto C, Nishioka K, Umemura T, Jitsuiki D, Sakagutchi A, Kawamura M, Chayama K, Yoshizumi M, Higashi Y (2007) Acute moderate-intensity exercise induces vasodilation through an increase in nitric oxide bioavailiability in humans. Am J Hypertens 20:825–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayashi N, Koba S, Yoshida T (2003) The effect of muscle contraction velocity on cardiorespiratory responses to repetitive isokinetic exercise in humans. Jpn J Physiol 53:327–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hayes SG, McCord JL, Rainier J, Liu Z, Kaufman MP (2008) Role played by acid-sensitive ion channels in evoking the exercise pressor reflex. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295:H1720–H1725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heffernan KS, Rossow L, Jae SY, Shokunbi HG, Gibson EM, Fernhall B (2006) Effect of single-leg resistance exercise on regional arterial stiffness. Eur J Appl Physiol 98:185–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Heffernan KS, Collier SR, Kelly EE, Jae SY, Fernhall B (2007) Arterial stiffness and baroreflex sensitivity following bouts of aerobic and resistance exercise. Int J Sports Med 28:197–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hickner RC, Dyck DJ, Sklar J, Hatley H, Byrd P (2010) Effect of 28 days of creatine ingestion on muscle metabolism and performance of a simulated cycling road race. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 7:7–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Iellamo F, Legramante JM, Raimondi G, Castrucci F, Damiani C, Foti C, Peruzzi G, Caruso I (1997) Effects of isokinetic, isotonic and isometric submaximal exercise on heart rate and blood pressure. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 75:89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Iellamo F, Pizzinelli P, Massaro M, Raimondi G, Peruzzi G, Legramante JM (1999) Muscle metaboreflex contribution to sinus node regulation during static exercise: insights from spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Circulation 100:27–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jahangir E, Vita JA, Handy D, Holbrook M, Palmisano J, Beal R, Loscalzo J, Eberhardt RT (2009) The effect of l-arginine and creatine on vascular function and homocysteine metabolism. Vasc Med 14:239–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jones AM, Wilkerson DP, Fulford J (2009) Influence of dietary creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine kinetics during knee-extensor exercise in humans. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 296:R1078–R1087PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kaminski et al (2000) Measurement of acute dynamic anaerobic muscle fatigue using a novel fatigue resistance index. Isokinetics Exerc Sci 8:95–101Google Scholar
  23. Kaufman MP, Longhurst JC, Rybicki KJ, Wallach JH, Mitchell JH (1983) Effects of static muscular contraction on impulse activity of groups III and IV afferents in cats. J Appl Physiol 55:105–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Kendall KL, Smith AE, Graef JL, Fukuda DH, Moon JR, Beck TW, Cramer JT, Stout JR (2009) Effects of four weeks of high-intensity interval training and creatine supplementation on critical power and anaerobic working capacity in college-aged men. J Strength Cond Res 23:1663–1669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kingwell BA (2002) Large artery stiffness: implications for exercise capacity and cardiovascular risk. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 29:214–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D, Pannier B, Vlachopoulos C, Wilkinson I, Struijker-Boudier H (2006) Expert consensus document on arterial stiffness: methodological issues and clinical applications. Eur Heart J 27:2588–2605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marzorati M, Perini R, Milesi S, Veicsteinas A (2000) Metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses to maximal intermittent knee isokinetic exercise in young healthy humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:275–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCord JL, Tsuchimochi H, Kaufman MP (2009) Acid-sensing ion channels contribute to the metaboreceptor component of the exercise pressor reflex. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H443–H449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Murphy AJ, Watsford ML, Coutts AJ, Richards DA (2005) Effects of creatine supplementation on aerobic power and cardiovascular structure and function. J Sci Med Sport 8:305–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nelson AG, Day R, Glickman-Weiss EL, Hegsted M, Kokkonen J, Sampson B (2000) Creatine supplementation alters the response to a graded cycle ergometer test. Eur J Appl Physiol 83:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Niemela TH, Kiviniemi AM, Hautala AJ, Salmi JA, Linnamo V, Tulppo MP (2008) Recovery pattern of baroreflex sensitivity after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:864–870PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. O’Leary DS (1993) Autonomic mechanisms of muscle metaboreflex control of heart rate. J Appl Physiol 74:1748–1754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K (2006) Cardiovascular responses induced during high-intensity eccentric and concentric isokinetic muscle contraction in healthy young adults. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 26:39–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Okamoto T, Masuhara M, Ikuta K (2009) Effects of muscle contraction timing during resistance training on vascular function. J Hum Hypertens 23:470–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Otsuki T, Maeda S, Kesen Y, Yokoyama N, Tanabe T, Sugawara J, Miyauchi T, Kuno S, Ajisaka R, Matsuda M (2006) Age-related reduction of systemic arterial compliance induces excessive myocardial oxygen consumption during sub-maximal exercise. Hypertens Res 29:65–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Overend TJ, Versteegh TH, Thompson E, Birmingham TB, Vandervoort AA (2000) Cardiovascular stress associated with concentric and eccentric isokinetic exercise in young and older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55:B177–B182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rezk CC, Marrache RC, Tinucci T, Mion D Jr, Forjaz CL (2006) Post-resistance exercise hypotension, hemodynamics, and heart rate variability: influence of exercise intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol 98:105–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sugawara J, Maeda S, Otsuki T, Tanabe T, Ajisaka R, Matsuda M (2004) Effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on decrease in peripheral arterial stiffness with acute low-intensity aerobic exercise. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287:H2666–H2669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sugawara J, Hayashi K, Yokoi T, Cortez-Cooper MY, DeVan AE, Anton MA, Tanaka H (2005) Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity: an index of central arterial stiffness? J Hum Hypertens 19:401–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tanaka H, Munakata M, Kawano Y, Ohishi M, Shoji T, Sugawara J, Tomiyama H, Yamashina A, Yasuda H, Sawayama T, Ozawa T (2009) Comparison between carotid-femoral and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as measures of arterial stiffness. J Hypertens 27:2022–2027PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yamashina A, Tomiyama H, Takeda K, Tsuda H, Arai T, Hirose K, Koji Y, Hori S, Yamamoto Y (2002) Validity, reproducibility, and clinical significance of noninvasive brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity measurement. Hypertens Res 25:359–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yoon ES, Jung SJ, Cheun SK, Oh YS, Kim SH, Jae SY (2010) Effects of acute resistance exercise on arterial stiffness in young men. Korean Circ J 40:16–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcos A. Sanchez-Gonzalez
    • 1
  • Ralph Wieder
    • 1
  • Jeong-Su Kim
    • 1
  • Florence Vicil
    • 1
  • Arturo Figueroa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise SciencesFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations