Cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and kinematic responses to stationary running performed in water and on dry land
- 507 Downloads
The purpose of this study was to analyze the cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and kinematic responses obtained during the stationary running in aquatic and dry land environments. Twelve women took part in the experimental protocol. Stationary running was performed for 4 min at three submaximal cadences and for 15 s at maximal velocity, with the collection of kinematic (peak hip angular velocity (AV)), cardiorespiratory (oxygen uptake (VO2)) and neuromuscular variables (electromyographic (EMG) signal from the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST) and short head of the biceps femoris (BF) muscles) in land-based and water-based test protocols. Factorial ANOVA was used, with an alpha level of 0.05. AV was significantly higher when the exercise was performed on land, and became significantly higher as the execution cadence increased. Similarly, VO2 was significantly higher in the land-based exercise and rose as cadence increased. With the increase in the submaximal execution cadences, there was no corresponding increase in the EMG signal from the VL, BF, RF and ST muscles in either environment, though such a significantly increase was seen between the submaximal cadences and the maximal velocity. Dry land presented significantly greater EMG signal responses for all muscles at the submaximal cadences, except for the ST muscle. However, at the maximal velocity, all the analyzed muscle groups showed similar responses in both environments. In summary, for both environments, cardiorespiratory responses can be maximized by increasing the submaximal cadences, while neuromuscular responses are only optimized by using maximal velocity.
KeywordsAquatic exercise Electromyography Heart rate Oxygen uptake Angular velocity
This study was supported by CAPES and CNPq. The authors wish to thank MIOTEC and INBRAMED companies for their invaluable contribution to this study.
Conflict of interest
We wish to confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this publication and there has been no significant financial support for this work that could have influenced its outcome.
- Alberton CL, Olkoski MM, Becker ME, Pinto SS, Kruel LFM (2007a) Cardiorespiratory responses of post-menopause women to different hydrogymnastic exercises. Int J Aquat Res Educ 1:363–372Google Scholar
- Alberton CL, Silva EM, Tartaruga MP, Cadore EL, Becker ME, Brentano MA, Kruel LFM (2007b) Electromiographic signal reliability analysis during isometric and dynamic actions performed in different environments. Rev Bras Biomec 8:81–88 (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Alberton CL, Silva EM, Cadore EL, Coertjens M, Beyer PO, Marocco LF, Kruel LFM (2008) Electromyographic responses induced by superficial electrodes isolation and by immersion. Rev Port Cienc Desp 8(3):330–336 (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Alberton CL, Tartaruga MP, Pinto SS, Cadore EL, Silva EM, Kruel LFM (2009) Cardiorespiratory responses to stationary running at different cadences in water and on land. J Sports Med Phys Fit 49:142–151Google Scholar
- Alexander R (1977) Mechanics and energetic of animal locomotion. In: Alexander R, Goldspink G (eds) Swimming. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 222–248Google Scholar
- Black GL, Müller E, Tartaruga MP, Brentano MA, Figueiredo PAP, Kruel LFM (2006) Electromyography in aquatic exercise with different resistances and velocities. In: Vilas-Boas JP, Alves F, Marques AS (eds) Xth international symposium biomechanics and medicine in swimming. Port J Sport Sci 6(Suppl. 1):75Google Scholar
- Carvalho RGS, Amorim CF, Perácio LHR, Coelho HF, Vieira AC, Karl Menzel HJ, Szmuchrowski LA (2010) Analysis of various conditions in order to measure electromyography of isometric contractions in water and on air. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 20:988–993. doi: 10.1016/j.jelekin.2009.12.002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cassady SL, Nielsen DH (1992) Cardiorespiratory responses of healthy subjects to calisthenics performed on land versus in water. Phys Ther 75:532–5382Google Scholar
- Cooke CB (1996) Metabolic rate and energy balance. In: Eston R, Reilly T (eds) Kinanthropometry and exercise physiology laboratory manual. E & FN Spon, London, pp 175–195Google Scholar
- DeLuca CJ (1997) The use of surface electromyography in biomechanics. J Appl Biomec 13:135–163Google Scholar
- Figueiredo PAP, Borges NG Jr, Tartaruga LAP, Kruel LFM (2006) Methodology of isolate the system to collect EMG signal in the water. Aquat Fit Res J 3(1):32Google Scholar
- Heithold K, Glass SC (2002) Variations in the heart rate and perception of effort during land and water aerobics in older women. J Exerc Physiol 5(4):22–28Google Scholar
- Kruel LFM (1994) Hydrostatic weight and heart rate in subjects immersed at different water depths. Unpublished master dissertation. Santa Maria. Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Kruel LFM (2000) Physiological and biomechanical alterations in individuals practicing water exercises inside and outside of the water. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Santa Maria. Federal University of Santa Maria, Brazil (In Portuguese)Google Scholar
- Kruel LFM, Tartaruga LAP, Tartaruga MP, Larronda ACC, Loss JF (2002) Kinematic analysis of middle-distance runners during treadmill running in deep water running. In: XX International symposium on biomechanics in sports. Cáceres, Spain, pp 88–91Google Scholar
- Müller ESM, Black GL, Figueiredo PAP, Kruel LFM, Hanish C, Appel HJ (2005) Electromyographic comparison of abdominal exercises in and out of water. Rev Port Cienc Desp 5(3):255–265 (In Portuguese)Google Scholar