Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 111, Issue 3, pp 433–440 | Cite as

Seasonal variation of bone turnover markers in top-level female skiers

  • Giovanni Lombardi
  • Alessandra Colombini
  • Marco Freschi
  • Rodolfo Tavana
  • Giuseppe Banfi
Original Article

Abstract

Different levels of weight-bearing activities imply different levels of anabolic effects on skeletal tissue and this can be assessed by measuring biochemical markers reflecting bone metabolism. With this study we wanted to determine how the serum levels of bone turnover markers change during different phases of annual training in elite female skiers. Fourteen top-level Caucasian athletes, from the Italian Women’s Alpine Ski Team (slalom and giant slalom), were tested at the end of the relative rest period (T1), the pre-competitive season (T2) and the competitive season (T3). Serum levels of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP5b) activities and of osteocalcin (OC), and crosslaps (the carboxyterminal crosslinked telopeptide of type I collagen—β-CTx), were assayed together with the determination of 25(OH)D levels. The formation markers, BAP and OC and the resorption marker TRAP5b significantly increased from T2 to T3, while crosslaps showed no significant changes. The peculiar trends of bone formation markers correlated one to each other at T2 versus T3, and this was probably linked to the highly demanding period of competitions when, in athletes performing weight-bearing exercise, bone is more stimulated by mechanical forces. 25(OH)D levels, instead, changed from T1 to T2 and from T1 to T3 and its trend do not show any correlation with that of bone markers. In conclusion, we found that both the bone formation markers and TRAP5b, marker of resorption, are significantly increased from the pre-competitive season to the competitive season.

Keywords

Bone turnover markers Ski Training seasons Critical difference 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Prof. Aldo Sassi, Dott. Ermanno Rampinini and the whole staff of the Mapei Sport Research Center, Castellanza (Varese, Italy), for their technical support and Mr. Kenneth Britsch for editing the manuscript, and Dr Cristian Ricci for the statistical analysis. This work was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health within the program of current research funding.

References

  1. Ashizawa N, Ouchi G, Fujimura R, Yoshida Y, Tokuyama K, Suzuki M (1998) Effects of a single bout of resistance exercise on calcium and bone metabolism in untrained young males. Calcif Tissue Int 62:104–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey CA, Brooke-Wavell K (2010) Optimum frequency of exercise for bone health: randomised controlled trial of a high-impact unilateral intervention. Bone 46:1043–1049CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Banfi G, Lombardi G, Colombini A, Lippi G (2010) Bone metabolism markers in sports medicine. Sports Med 40(8):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bemben DA, Buchanan TD, Bemben MG, Knehans AW (2004) Influence of type of mechanical loading, menstrual status, and training season on bone density in young women athletes. J Strength Cond Res 18:220–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennell KL, Malcolm SA, Khan KM, Thomas SA, Reid SJ, Brukner PD, Ebeling PR, Wark JD (1997) Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study. Bone 20:477–484CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brahm H, Piehl-Aulin K, Ljunghall S (1996) Biochemical markers of bone metabolism during distance running in healthy, regularly exercising men and women. Scand J Med Sci Sports 6:26–30CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chilibeck PD, Sale DG, Webber CE (1995) Exercise and bone mineral density. Sports Med 19:103–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Compston J (2009) Monitoring osteoporosis treatment. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 23:781–788CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Costongs GM, Bas BM, Janson PC, Hermans J, Brombacher PJ, van Wersch JW (1985) Short term and long term intraindividual variations and critical differences of clinical chemistry labaroatory parameters. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 23:7–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eliakim A, Raisz LG, Brasel JA, Cooper DM (1997) Evidence for increased bone formation following a brief endurance-type training intervention in adolescent males. J Bone Miner Res 12:1708–1713CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisher RA (1921) On the ‘probable error’ of a coefficient of correlation deduced from a small sample. Metron 1:3–32Google Scholar
  12. Garnero P (2009) Bone markers in osteoporosis. Cur Osteoporos Rep 7:84–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glover SJ, Gall M, Schoenborn-Kellenberger O, Wagener M, Garnero P, Boonen S, Cauley JA, Black DM, Delmas D, Eastell R (2009) Establishing a reference interval for bone turnover markers in 637 healthy, young, premenopausal women from the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and the United States. J Bone Miner Res 24:389–397CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Guadalupe-Grau A, Fuentes T, Guerra B, Calbet JA (2009) Exercise and bone mass in adults. Sports Med 39:439–468CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hawes MR, Sovak D (1994) Morphological prototypes, assessment and change in elite athletes. J Sports Sci 12:235–242CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Herrmann M, Herrmann W (2004) The assessment of bone metabolism in female elite endurance athletes by biochemical markers. Clin Chem Lab Med 42:1384–1389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Herrmann M, Müller M, Scharhag J, Sand-Hill M, Kindermann W, Herrmann W (2007) The effect of endurance exercise-induced lactacidosis on biochemical markers of bone turnover. Clin Chem Lab Med 45:1381–1389CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hill TR, McCarthy D, Jakobsen J, Lamberg-Allardt C, Kiely M, Cashman KD (2007) Seasonal changes in vitamin D status and bone turnover in healthy Irish postmenopausal women. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 77:320–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Holick MF (2009) Vitamin D status: measurements, interpretation and clinical application. Ann Epidemiol 19:73–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Jürimäe J, Purge P, Jürimäe T, von Duvillard SP (2006) Bone metabolism in elite male rowers: adaptation to volume-extended training. Eur J Appl Physiol 97:127–132CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Karlsson KM, Karlsson C, Ahlborg HG, Valdimarsson O, Ljunghall S (2003) The duration of exercise as a regulator of bone turnover. Calcif Tissue Int 73:350–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kristoffersson A, Hultdin J, Holmlund I, Thorsen K, Lorentzon R (1995) Effects of short term maximal work on plasma calcium, parathyroid hormone, osteocalcin and biochemical markers of collagen metabolism. Int J Sports Med 16:145–149CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Larson-Meyer DE, Willis KS (2010) Vitamin D and athletes. Curr Sports Med Rep 9:220–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Laskowski ER (1999) Snow skiing. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 10:189–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lippi G, Schena F, Montagnana M, Salvagno GL, Banfi G, Guidi GC (2008) Acute variation of osteocalcin and parathyroid hormone in athletes after running a half-marathon. Clin Chem 54:1093–1095CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Maïmoun L, Galy O, Manetta J, Coste O, Peruchon E, Micallef JP, Mariano-Goulart D, Couret I, Sultan C, Rossi M (2004) Competitive season of triathlon does not alter bone metabolism and bone mineral status in male triathletes. Int J Sports Med 25:230–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Maïmoun L, Simar D, Caillaud C, Peruchon E, Sultan C, Rossi M, Mariano-Goulart D (2008) No negative impact of reduced leptin secretion on bone metabolism in male decathletes. J Sports Sci 26:251–258CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. McClanahan B, Ward KD, Vukadinovich C, Klesges RC, Chitwood L, Kinzey SJ, Brown S, Frate D (2002) Bone mineral density in triathletes over a competitive season. J Sports Sci 20:463–469CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Morel J, Combe B, Francisco J, Bernard J (2001) Bone mineral density of 704 amateur sportsmen involved in different physical activities. Osteoporos Int 12:152–157CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Mouzopoulos G, Stamatakos M, Tzurbakis M, Tsembeli A, Manti C, Safioleas M, Skandalakis P (2007) Changes of bone turnover markers after marathon running over 245 km. Int J Sports Med 28:576–579CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Müller E, Schwameder H (2003) Biomechanical aspects of new techniques in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. J Sports Sci 21:679–692CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Murphy NM, Carroll P (2003) The effect of physical activity and its interaction with nutrition on bone health. Proc Nutr Soc 62:829–838CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. O’Kane JW, Hutchinson E, Atley LM, Eyre DR (2006) Sport-related differences in biomarkers of bone resorption and cartilage degradation in endurance athletes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 14:71–76CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Pettersson U, Nordstrom P, Lorentzon R (1999) A comparison of bone mineral density and muscle strength in young male adults with different exercise levels. Calcif Tissue Int 64:490–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Pollock ML, Laughridge EE, Coleman B, Linnerud AC, Jackson A (1975) Prediction of body density in young and middle-aged women. J Appl Physiol 38:745–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rector RS, Rogers R, Ruebel M, Hinton PS (2008) Participation in road cycling vs. running is associated with lower bone mineral density in men. Metabolism 57:226–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rizzoli R, Bianchi ML, Garabédian M, McKay HA, Moreno LA (2010) Maximizing bone mineral mass gain during growth for the prevention of fractures in the adolescents and the elderly. Bone 46:294–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryan AS, Elahi D (1998) Loss of bone mineral density in women athletes during aging. Calcif Tissue Int 63:287–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Seibel MJ (2005) Biochemical markers of bone turnover. Part I. Biochemistry and variability. Clin Biochem Rev 26:97–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Shackelford LC, LeBlanc AD, Driscoll TB, Evans HJ, Rianon NJ, Smith SM, Spector E, Feeback DL, Lai D (2004) Resistance exercise as a countermeasure to disuse-induced bone loss. J Appl Physiol 97:119–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Snow CM, Williams DP, LaRiviere J, Fuchs RK, Robinson TL (2001) Bone gains and losses follow seasonal training and detraining in gymnasts. Calcif Tissue Int 69:7–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Spearman C (1904) The proof and measurement of association between two things. Am J Psychol 15:72–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Vainionpää A, Korpelainen R, Leppäluoto J, Jämsa T (2005) Effects of high-impact exercise on bone mineral density: a randomized controlled trial in premenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 16:191–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Welsh L, Rutherford OM, James I, Crowley C, Comer M, Wolman R (1997) The acute effects of exercise on bone turnover. Int J Sports Med 18:247–251CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Whipple TJ, Le BH, Demers LM, Chinchilli VM, Petit MA, Sharkey N, Williams NI (2004) Acute effects of moderate intensity resistance exercise on bone cell activity. Int J Sports Med 25:496–501CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Winters KM, Snow CM (2000) Detraining reverses positive effects of exercise on the musculoskeletal system in premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res 15:2495–2503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Woitge HW, Friedmann B, Suttner S, Farahmand I, Müller M, Schmidt-Gayk H, Baertsch P, Ziegler R, Seibel MJ (1998) Changes in bone turnover induced by aerobic and anaerobic exercise in young males. J Bone Miner Res 13:1797–1804CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giovanni Lombardi
    • 1
  • Alessandra Colombini
    • 1
  • Marco Freschi
    • 2
  • Rodolfo Tavana
    • 2
  • Giuseppe Banfi
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Cell Cultures and Molecular BiologyI.R.C.C.S. Istituto Ortopedico GaleazziMilanItaly
  2. 2.Medical Board Italian Winter Sports Federation-FISIMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations