Advertisement

Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) treatment before knee extensor eccentric exercise on indirect markers of muscle damage. Thirty-six healthy men were randomized in LLLT group (n = 18) and placebo group (n = 18). After LLLT or placebo treatment, subjects performed 75 maximal knee extensors eccentric contractions (five sets of 15 repetitions; velocity = 60° seg−1; range of motion = 60°). Muscle soreness (visual analogue scale—VAS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) levels were measured prior to exercise, and 24 and 48 h after exercise. Muscle function (maximal voluntary contraction—MVC) was measured before exercise, immediately after, and 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Groups had no difference on kineanthropometric characteristics and on eccentric exercise performance. They also presented similar baseline values of VAS (0.00 mm for LLLT and placebo groups), LDH (LLLT = 186 IU/l; placebo = 183 IU/l), CK (LLLT = 145 IU/l; placebo = 155 IU/l) and MVC (LLLT = 293 Nm; placebo = 284 Nm). VAS data did not show group by time interaction (P = 0.066). In the other outcomes, LLLT group presented (1) smaller increase on LDH values 48 h post-exercise (LLLT = 366 IU/l; placebo = 484 IU/l; P = 0.017); (2) smaller increase on CK values 24 h (LLLT = 272 IU/l; placebo = 498 IU/l; P = 0.020) and 48 h (LLLT = 436 IU/l; placebo = 1328 IU/l; P < 0.001) post-exercise; (3) smaller decrease on MVC immediately after exercise (LLLT = 189 Nm; placebo = 154 Nm; P = 0.011), and 24 h (LLLT = 249 Nm; placebo = 205 Nm; P = 0.004) and 48 h (LLLT = 267 Nm; placebo = 216 Nm; P = 0.001) post-exercise compared with the placebo group. In conclusion, LLLT treatment before eccentric exercise was effective in terms of attenuating the increase of muscle proteins in the blood serum and the decrease in muscle force.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  1. Al-Watban FA, Zhang XY, Andres BL (2007) Low-level laser therapy enhances wound healing in diabetic rats: a comparison of different lasers. Photomed Laser Surg 25:72–77

  2. Avni D, Levkovitz S, Maltz L, Oron U (2005) Protection of skeletal muscles from ischemic injury: low-level laser therapy increases antioxidant activity. Photomed Laser Surg 23:273–277

  3. Baroni BM, Leal Junior ECP, Geremia JM, Diefenthaeler F, Vaz MA (2010) Effect of light emmiting diodes therapy (LEDT) on knee extensor muscle fatigue. Photomed Laser Surg (in press)

  4. Brown SJ, Child RB, Day SH, Donnelly AE (1997) Exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage and adaptation following repeated bouts of eccentric muscle contractions. J Sports Sci 15:215–222

  5. Byrne C, Twist C, Eston R (2004) Neuromuscular function after exercise-induced muscle damage—theoretical and applied implications. Sports Med 34:49–69

  6. Chapman D, Nexton M, Sacco P, Nosaka K (2006) Greater muscle damage induced by fast versus slow velocity eccentric exercise. Int J Sports Med 27:591–598

  7. Chen TC, Nosaka K, Sacco P (2007) Intensity of eccentric exercise, shift of optimum angle, and the magnitude of repeated-bout effect. J Appl Physiol 102:992–999

  8. Cheung K, Hume P, Maxwell L (2003) Delayed onset muscle soreness—treatment strategies and performance factors. Sports Med 33:145–164

  9. Chow RT, Johnson MI, Lopes-Martins RA, Bjordal JM (2009) Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials. Lancet 374:1897–1908

  10. Clarkson PM, Hubal MJ (2002) Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 81:S52–S69

  11. Craig JA, Barron J, Walsh DM, Baxter GD (1999) Lack of effect of combined low-intensity laser therapy/phototherapy (CLILT) on delayed onset muscle soreness in humans. Lasers Surg Med 24:223–230

  12. Cressoni MD, Dib Giusti HH, Casarotto RA, Anaruma CA (2008) The effects of a 785-nm AlGaInP laser on the regeneration of rat anterior tibialis muscle after surgically-induced injury. Photomed Laser Surg (Ahead of print). doi:10.1089/pho.2007.2150

  13. Douris P, Southard V, Ferrigi R, Grauer J, Katz D, Nascimento C, Podbielski P (2006) Effect of phototherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Photomed Laser Surg 24:377–382

  14. French DN, Thompson KG, Garland SW, Barnes CA, Portas MD, Hood PE, Wilkes G (2008) The effects of contrast bathing and compression therapy on muscular performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:1297–1306

  15. Fridén J, Lieber RL (2001) Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components. Acta Physiol Scand 171:321–326

  16. Hough T (1902) Ergographic studies in muscular soreness. Am J Physiol 7:76–92

  17. Howatson G, van Someren KA (2008) The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med 38:483–450

  18. Huang YY, Chen AC, Carroll JD, Hamblin MR (2009) Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy. Dose Response 7:358–383

  19. Jamurtas AZ, Theocharis V, Tofas T, Tsiokanos A, Yfanti C, Paschalis V, Koutedakis Y, Nosaka K (2005) Comparison between leg and arm eccentric exercises of the same relative intensity on indices of muscle damage. Eur J Appl Physiol 95:179–185

  20. Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RB, Rossi RP, De Marchi T, Baroni BM, Godoi V, Marcos RL, Ramos L, Bjordal JM (2009) Effect of cluster multi-diode light emitting diode therapy (LEDT) on exercise-induced skeletal muscle fatigue and skeletal muscle recovery in humans. Lasers Surg Med 41:572–577

  21. Leal Junior EC, Lopes-Martins RA, de Almeida P, Ramos L, Iversen VV, Bjordal JM (2010) Effect of low-level laser therapy (GaAs 904 nm) in skeletal muscle fatigue and biochemical markers of muscle damage in rats. Eur J Appl Physiol 108:1083–1088

  22. Liu XG, Zhou YJ, Liu TC, Yuan JQ (2009) Effects of low-level laser irradiation on rat skeletal muscle injury after eccentric exercise. Photomed Laser Surg 27:863–869

  23. Marfell-Jones M, Olds T, Stewart A, Carter L (2006) International standards for anthropometric assessment. ISAK, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

  24. Morgan DL (1990) New insights into the behavior of muscle during active lengthening. Biophys J 57:209–221

  25. Morgan DL, Allen DG (1999) Early events in stretch-induced muscle damage. J Appl Physiol 87:2007–2015

  26. Nikolaidis MG, Jamurtas AZ, Paschalis V, Fatouros IG, Koutedakis Y, Kouretas D (2008) The effect of muscle-damaging exercise on blood and skeletal muscle oxidative stress: magnitude and time-course considerations. Sports Med 38:579–606

  27. Nosaka K, Clarkson PM (1996) Variability in serum creatine kinase response after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Int J Sports Med 17:120–127

  28. Nosaka K, Sakamoto K, Newton M, Sacco P (2001) How long does the protective effect on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage last? Med Sci Sports Exerc 33:1490–1495

  29. Oliveira FS, Pinfildi CE, Parizoto NA, Liebano RE, Bossini PS, Garcia EB, Ferreira LM (2009) Effect of low level laser therapy (830 nm) with different therapy regimes on the process of tissue repair in partial lesion calcaneous tendon. Lasers Surg Med 41:271–276

  30. Proske U, Morgan DL (2001) Muscle damage from eccentric exercise: mechanism, mechanical signs, adaptation and clinical applications. J Physiol 537:333–345

  31. Rizzi CF, Mauriz JL, Freitas Corrêa DS, Moreira AJ, Zettler CG, Filippin LI, Marroni NP, González-Gallego J (2006) Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway in traumatized muscle. Lasers Surg Med 38:704–713

  32. Rochkind S, Geuna S, Shainberg A (2009) Chapter 25: phototherapy in peripheral nerve injury: effects on muscle preservation and nerve regeneration. Int Rev Neurobiol 87:445–464

  33. Silveira PC, Silva LA, Fraga DB, Freitas TP, Streck EL, Pinho R (2009) Evaluation of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in muscle healing by low-level laser therapy. J Photochem Photobiol B 95:89–92

  34. Sussai DA, Carvalho PTC, Dourado DM, Belchior ACG, Reis FA, Pereira DM (2010) Low-level laser therapy attenuates creatine kinase levels and apoptosis during forced swimming in rats. Lasers Med Sci 25:115–120

  35. Totsuka M, Nakaji S, Suzuki K, Sugawara K, Sato K (2002) Break point of serum creatine kinase release after endurance exercise. J Appl Physiol 93:1280–1286

  36. Váczi M, Costa A, Rácz L, Tihanyi J (2009) Effects of consecutive eccentric training at different range of motion on muscle damage and recovery. Acta Physiol Hung 96:459–468

  37. Warren GL, Lowe DA, Armstrong RB (1999) Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Med 27:43–59

  38. White JP, Wilson JM, Austin KG, Greer BK, St. John N, Panton LB (2008) Effect of carbohydrate-protein supplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 5:5

  39. Wilson JM, Kim JS, Lee SR, Rathmacher JA, Dalmau B, Kingsley JD, Koch H, Manninen AH, Saadat R, Panton LB (2009) Acute and timing effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on indirect markers of skeletal muscle damage. Nutr Metab (Lond) 6:6

  40. Xu X, Zhao X, Liu TC, Pan H (2008) Low-intensity laser irradiation improves the mitochondrial dysfunction of C2C12 induced by electrical stimulation. Photomed Laser Surg 26:197–202

  41. Yamaura M, Yao M, Yaroslavsky I, Cohen R, Smotrich M, Kochevar IE (2009) Low level light effects on inflammatory cytokine production by rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes. Lasers Surg Med 41:282–290

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES-Brazil) and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa (CNPq-Brazil) for financial support and our colleagues Rodrigo Rodrigues and Giovani dos Santos Cunha for technical assistance during data collection.

Author information

Correspondence to Bruno Manfredini Baroni.

Additional information

Communicated by Arnold de Haan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Baroni, B.M., Leal Junior, E.C.P., De Marchi, T. et al. Low level laser therapy before eccentric exercise reduces muscle damage markers in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 110, 789–796 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1562-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Eccentric exercise
  • Delayed onset muscle soreness
  • Lactate dehydrogenase
  • Creatine kinase
  • Torque