European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 110, Issue 2, pp 223–234 | Cite as

Physiological and methodological considerations for the use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation

  • Nicola A. MaffiulettiEmail author
Review Article


The main aim of this review is to discuss some evidence-based physiological and methodological considerations for optimal use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in healthy and impaired skeletal muscles. After a quick overview of the main applications, interests and limits of NMES use, the first section concentrates on two crucial aspects of NMES physiology: the differences in motor unit recruitment pattern between NMES and voluntary contractions, and the involvement of the nervous system during peripheral NMES. The second section of the article focuses on the most common NMES parameters, which entail the characteristics of both the electrical current (the input) and the evoked contraction (the output).


Strength training Rehabilitation Muscle function Quadriceps 



The author thanks: Marco A. Minetto for reading the manuscript and offering useful suggestions; Silvestro Roatta for providing the data presented in Fig. 4; Kirsten Dobson for checking English language; Gilles Cometti, Marc Jubeau, and Alain Martin for their continuous support and enthusiasm.


  1. Adams GR, Harris RT, Woodard D, Dudley GA (1993) Mapping of electrical muscle stimulation using MRI. J Appl Physiol 74:532–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Amiridis I, Arabatzi F, Violaris P, Stavropoulos E, Hatzitaki V (2005) Static balance improvement in elderly after dorsiflexors electrostimulation training. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:424–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Babault N, Cometti G, Bernardin M, Pousson M, Chatard JC (2007) Effects of electromyostimulation training on muscle strength and power of elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 21:431–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker LL, Wederich C, McNeal D, Newsam CJ, Waters RL (2000) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation: a practical guide. Los Amigos Research and Educational Institute, Downey, CAGoogle Scholar
  5. Bax L, Staes F, Verhagen A (2005) Does neuromuscular electrical stimulation strengthen the quadriceps femoris? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Sports Med 35:191–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belanger M, Stein RB, Wheeler GD, Gordon T, Leduc B (2000) Electrical stimulation: can it increase muscle strength and reverse osteopenia in spinal cord injured individuals? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 81:1090–1098PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Binder-Macleod SA, Halden EE, Jungles KA (1995) Effects of stimulation intensity on the physiological responses of human motor units. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:556–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Boerio D, Jubeau M, Zory R, Maffiuletti NA (2005) Central and peripheral fatigue after electrostimulation-induced resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:973–978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brocherie F, Babault N, Cometti G, Maffiuletti N, Chatard JC (2005) Electrostimulation training effects on the physical performance of ice hockey players. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:455–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cabric M, Appell HJ, Resic A (1988) Fine structural changes in electrostimulated human skeletal muscle. Evidence for predominant effects on fast muscle fibres. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 57:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caggiano E, Emrey T, Shirley S, Craik RL (1994) Effects of electrical stimulation or voluntary contraction for strengthening the quadriceps femoris muscles in an aged male population. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 20:22–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Callaghan MJ, Oldham JA, Winstanley J (2001) A comparison of two types of electrical stimulation of the quadriceps in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome. A pilot study. Clin Rehabil 15:637–646PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins DF (2007) Central contributions to contractions evoked by tetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35:102–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Convertino VA (1996) Exercise as a countermeasure for physiological adaptation to prolonged spaceflight. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28:999–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Crameri RM, Weston AR, Rutkowski S, Middleton JW, Davis GM, Sutton JR (2000) Effects of electrical stimulation leg training during the acute phase of spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Eur J Appl Physiol 83:409–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crevenna R, Marosi C, Schmidinger M, Fialka-Moser V (2006) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for a patient with metastatic lung cancer—a case report. Support Care Cancer 14:970–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Currier DP, Mann R (1983) Muscular strength development by electrical stimulation in healthy individuals. Phys Ther 63:915–921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Dean JC, Yates LM, Collins DF (2007) Turning on the central contribution to contractions evoked by neuromuscular electrical stimulation. J Appl Physiol 103:170–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Deley G, Millet GY, Borrani F, Lattier G, Brondel L (2006) Effects of two types of fatigue on the VO(2) slow component. Int J Sports Med 27:475–482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Delitto A, Rose SJ, McKowen JM, Lehman RC, Thomas JA, Shively RA (1988) Electrical stimulation versus voluntary exercise in strengthening thigh musculature after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Phys Ther 68:660–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Delitto A, Brown M, Strube MJ, Rose SJ, Lehman RC (1989) Electrical stimulation of quadriceps femoris in an elite weight lifter: a single subject experiment. Int J Sports Med 10:187–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Delitto A, Strube MJ, Shulman AD, Minor SD (1992) A study of discomfort with electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 72:410–421 (discussion on 421–424)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dudley GA, Castro MJ, Rogers S, Apple DF Jr (1999) A simple means of increasing muscle size after spinal cord injury: a pilot study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 80:394–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Duvoisin MR, Convertino VA, Buchanan P, Gollnick PD, Dudley GA (1989) Characteristics and preliminary observations of the influence of electromyostimulation on the size and function of human skeletal muscle during 30 days of simulated microgravity. Aviat Space Environ Med 60:671–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Enoka RM (2002a) Activation order of motor axons in electrically evoked contractions. Muscle Nerve 25:763–764PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Enoka RM (2002b) Neuromechanics of human movement. Human Kinetics, Champaign, ILGoogle Scholar
  27. Eriksson E, Haggmark T (1979) Comparison of isometric muscle training and electrical stimulation supplementing isometric muscle training in the recovery after major knee ligament surgery. A preliminary report. Am J Sports Med 7:169–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Eriksson E, Haggmark T, Kiessling KH, Karlsson J (1981) Effect of electrical stimulation on human skeletal muscle. Int J Sports Med 2:18–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Feiereisen P, Duchateau J, Hainaut K (1997) Motor unit recruitment order during voluntary and electrically induced contractions in the tibialis anterior. Exp Brain Res 114:117–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fitzgerald GK, Piva SR, Irrgang JJ (2003) A modified neuromuscular electrical stimulation protocol for quadriceps strength training following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 33:492–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gandevia SC (2001) Spinal and supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue. Physiol Rev 81:1725–1789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Garnett R, Stephens JA (1981) Changes in the recruitment threshold of motor units produced by cutaneous stimulation in man. J Physiol 311:463–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gerovasili V, Stefanidis K, Vitzilaios K, Karatzanos E, Politis P, Koroneos A, Chatzimichail A, Routsi C, Roussos C, Nanas S (2009) Electrical muscle stimulation preserves the muscle mass of critically ill patients: a randomized study. Crit Care 13:R161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gibson JN, Smith K, Rennie MJ (1988) Prevention of disuse muscle atrophy by means of electrical stimulation: maintenance of protein synthesis. Lancet 2:767–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gibson JN, Morrison WL, Scrimgeour CM, Smith K, Stoward PJ, Rennie MJ (1989) Effects of therapeutic percutaneous electrical stimulation of atrophic human quadriceps on muscle composition, protein synthesis and contractile properties. Eur J Clin Invest 19:206–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glinsky J, Harvey L, Van Es P (2007) Efficacy of electrical stimulation to increase muscle strength in people with neurological conditions: a systematic review. Physiother Res Int 12:175–194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gondin J, Guette M, Ballay Y, Martin A (2005) Electromyostimulation training effects on neural drive and muscle architecture. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1291–1299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gondin J, Duclay J, Martin A (2006) Soleus- and gastrocnemii-evoked V-wave responses increase after neuromuscular electrical stimulation training. J Neurophysiol 95:3328–3335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gosker HR, Engelen MP, van Mameren H, van Dijk PJ, van der Vusse GJ, Wouters EF, Schols AM (2002) Muscle fiber type IIX atrophy is involved in the loss of fat-free mass in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Clin Nutr 76:113–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gould N, Donnermeyer D, Gammon GG, Pope M, Ashikaga T (1983) Transcutaneous muscle stimulation to retard disuse atrophy after open meniscectomy. Clin Orthop Relat Res:190–197Google Scholar
  41. Gregory CM, Bickel CS (2005) Recruitment patterns in human skeletal muscle during electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 85:358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hainaut K, Duchateau J (1992) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary exercise. Sports Med 14:100–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harris S, LeMaitre JP, Mackenzie G, Fox KA, Denvir MA (2003) A randomised study of home-based electrical stimulation of the legs and conventional bicycle exercise training for patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J 24:871–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Henneman E, Somjen G, Carpenter DO (1965) Functional significance of cell size in spinal motoneurons. J Neurophysiol 28:560–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Heyters M, Carpentier A, Duchateau J, Hainaut K (1994) Twitch analysis as an approach to motor unit activation during electrical stimulation. Can J Appl Physiol 19:451–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Horstman AM, Beltman MJ, Gerrits KH, Koppe P, Janssen TW, Elich P, de Haan A (2008) Intrinsic muscle strength and voluntary activation of both lower limbs and functional performance after stroke. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 28:251–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hortobagyi T, Lambert NJ, Tracy C, Shinebarger M (1992) Voluntary and electromyostimulation forces in trained and untrained men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 24:702–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hortobagyi T, Scott K, Lambert J, Hamilton G, Tracy J (1999) Cross-education of muscle strength is greater with stimulated than voluntary contractions. Mot Control 3:205–219Google Scholar
  49. Howard JD, Enoka RM (1991) Maximum bilateral contractions are modified by neurally mediated interlimb effects. J Appl Physiol 70:306–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hultman E, Sjoholm H, Jaderholm-Ek I, Krynicki J (1983) Evaluation of methods for electrical stimulation of human skeletal muscle in situ. Pflugers Arch 398:139–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Jubeau M, Gondin J, Martin A, Sartorio A, Maffiuletti NA (2007) Random motor unit activation by electrostimulation. Int J Sports Med 28:901–904 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Jubeau M, Sartorio A, Marinone PG, Agosti F, Van Hoecke J, Nosaka K, Maffiuletti NA (2008) Comparison between voluntary and stimulated contractions of the quadriceps femoris for growth hormone response and muscle damage. J Appl Physiol 104:75–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kahanovitz N, Nordin M, Verderame R, Yabut S, Parnianpour M, Viola K, Mulvihill M (1987) Normal trunk muscle strength and endurance in women and the effect of exercises and electrical stimulation. Part 2: comparative analysis of electrical stimulation and exercises to increase trunk muscle strength and endurance. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 12:112–118Google Scholar
  54. Kanda F, Okuda S, Matsushita T, Takatani K, Kimura KI, Chihara K (2001) Steroid myopathy: pathogenesis and effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I administration. Horm Res 56(Suppl 1):24–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Knaflitz M, Merletti R, De Luca CJ (1990) Inference of motor unit recruitment order in voluntary and electrically elicited contractions. J Appl Physiol 68:1657–1667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Knight CA, Kamen G (2005) Superficial motor units are larger than deeper motor units in human vastus lateralis muscle. Muscle Nerve 31:475–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lai HS, De Domenico G, Strauss GR (1988) The effect of different electro-motor stimulation training intensities on strength improvement. Aust J Physiother 34:151–164Google Scholar
  58. Lake DA (1992) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation. An overview and its application in the treatment of sports injuries. Sports Med 13:320–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lieber RL (1986) Skeletal muscle adaptability III: muscle properties following chronic electrical stimulation. Dev Med Child Neurol 28:662–670PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lieber RL, Kelly MJ (1991) Factors influencing quadriceps femoris muscle torque using transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 71:715–721 (discussion 722–723)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lieber RL, Kelly MJ (1993) Torque history of electrically stimulated human quadriceps: implications for stimulation therapy. J Orthop Res 11:131–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lieber RL, Silva PD, Daniel DM (1996) Equal effectiveness of electrical and volitional strength training for quadriceps femoris muscles after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. J Orthop Res 14:131–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lloyd T, De Domenico G, Strauss GR, Singer K (1986) A review of the use of electro-motor stimulation in human muscles. Aust J Physiother 32:18–30Google Scholar
  64. Maffiuletti NA (2006) The use of electrostimulation exercise in competitive sport. Int J Sports Physiol Perform 1:406–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Maffiuletti NA (2008) Caution is required when comparing the effectiveness of voluntary versus stimulated versus combined strength training modalities. Sports Med 38:437–438 (author reply 438–440)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maffiuletti NA, Dugnani S, Folz M, Di Pierno E, Mauro F (2002a) Effect of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on vertical jump height. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:1638–1644PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Martin A (2002b) Activation of human plantar flexor muscles increases after electromyostimulation training. J Appl Physiol 92:1383–1392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Maffiuletti NA, Pensini M, Scaglioni G, Ferri A, Ballay Y, Martin A (2003) Effect of electromyostimulation training on soleus and gastrocnemii H- and T-reflex properties. Eur J Appl Physiol 90:601–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maffiuletti NA, Zory R, Miotti D, Pellegrino MA, Jubeau M, Bottinelli R (2006) Neuromuscular adaptations to electrostimulation resistance training. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 85:167–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Maffiuletti NA, Herrero AJ, Jubeau M, Impellizzeri FM, Bizzini M (2008) Differences in electrical stimulation thresholds between men and women. Ann Neurol 63:507–512PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Maffiuletti NA, Bramanti J, Jubeau M, Bizzini M, Deley G, Cometti G (2009) Feasibility and efficacy of progressive electrostimulation strength training for competitive tennis players. J Strength Cond Res 23:677–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Malatesta D, Cattaneo F, Dugnani S, Maffiuletti NA (2003) Effects of electromyostimulation training and volleyball practice on jumping ability. J Strength Cond Res 17:573–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martin V, Millet GY, Martin A, Deley G, Lattier G (2004) Assessment of low-frequency fatigue with two methods of electrical stimulation. J Appl Physiol 97:1923–1929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mayr W, Bijak M, Girsch W, Hofer C, Lanmuller H, Rafolt D, Rakos M, Sauermann S, Schmutterer C, Schnetz G, Unger E, Freilinger G (1999) MYOSTIM-FES to prevent muscle atrophy in microgravity and bed rest: preliminary report. Artif Organs 23:428–431PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Merrill DR (2009) Review of electrical stimulation in cerebral palsy and recommendations for future directions. Dev Med Child Neurol 51(Suppl 4):154–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller C, Thepaut-Mathieu C (1993) Strength training by electrostimulation conditions for efficacy. Int J Sports Med 14:20–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Morrissey MC (1988) Electromyostimulation from a clinical perspective. A review. Sports Med 6:29–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Newsam CJ, Baker LL (2004) Effect of an electric stimulation facilitation program on quadriceps motor unit recruitment after stroke. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 85:2040–2045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Papaiordanidou M, Guiraud D, Varray A (2010) Kinetics of neuromuscular changes during low-frequency electrical stimulation. Muscle Nerve 41:54–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Petterson S, Snyder-Mackler L (2006) The use of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve activation deficits in a patient with chronic quadriceps strength impairments following total knee arthroplasty. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 36:678–685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Pichon F, Chatard JC, Martin A, Cometti G (1995) Electrical stimulation and swimming performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1671–1676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Piva SR, Goodnite EA, Azuma K, Woollard JD, Goodpaster BH, Wasko MC, Fitzgerald GK (2007) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional exercise for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis: a multiple-patient case report. Phys Ther 87:1064–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Querol F, Gallach JE, Toca-Herrera JL, Gomis M, Gonzalez LM (2006) Surface electrical stimulation of the quadriceps femoris in patients affected by haemophilia A. Haemophilia 12:629–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Quittan M, Wiesinger GF, Sturm B, Puig S, Mayr W, Sochor A, Paternostro T, Resch KL, Pacher R, Fialka-Moser V (2001) Improvement of thigh muscles by neuromuscular electrical stimulation in patients with refractory heart failure: a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 80:206–214 (quiz 215–216, 224)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Reed B (1997) The physiology of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Pediatr Phys Ther 9:96–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Roig M, Reid WD (2009) Electrical stimulation and peripheral muscle function in COPD: a systematic review. Respir Med 103:485–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sale DG (1988) Neural adaptation to resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc 20:S135–S145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Selkowitz DM (1985) Improvement in isometric strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle after training with electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 65:186–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Smith GV, Alon G, Roys SR, Gullapalli RP (2003) Functional MRI determination of a dose–response relationship to lower extremity neuromuscular electrical stimulation in healthy subjects. Exp Brain Res 150:33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Snyder-Mackler L, Ladin Z, Schepsis AA, Young JC (1991) Electrical stimulation of the thigh muscles after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Effects of electrically elicited contraction of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscles on gait and on strength of the thigh muscles. J Bone Jt Surg Am 73:1025–1036Google Scholar
  91. Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Stralka SW, Bailey SL (1994) Use of electrical stimulation to enhance recovery of quadriceps femoris muscle force production in patients following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Phys Ther 74:901–907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Snyder-Mackler L, Delitto A, Bailey SL, Stralka SW (1995) Strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle and functional recovery after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. A prospective, randomized clinical trial of electrical stimulation. J Bone Jt Surg Am 77:1166–1173Google Scholar
  93. Stackhouse SK, Binder-Macleod SA, Stackhouse CA, McCarthy JJ, Prosser LA, Lee SC (2007) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation versus volitional isometric strength training in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy: a preliminary study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair 21:475–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Stefanovska A, Vodovnik L (1985) Change in muscle force following electrical stimulation. Dependence on stimulation waveform and frequency. Scand J Rehabil Med 17:141–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Stevens JE, Mizner RL, Snyder-Mackler L (2004) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for quadriceps muscle strengthening after bilateral total knee arthroplasty: a case series. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 34:21–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Suetta C, Aagaard P, Rosted A, Jakobsen AK, Duus B, Kjaer M, Magnusson SP (2004) Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse. J Appl Physiol 97:1954–1961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tanino Y, Daikuya S, Nishimori T, Takasaki K, Suzuki T (2003) M wave and H-reflex of soleus muscle before and after electrical muscle stimulation in healthy subjects. Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol 43:381–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Theurel J, Lepers R, Pardon L, Maffiuletti NA (2007) Differences in cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular responses between voluntary and stimulated contractions of the quadriceps femoris muscle. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 157:341–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Trimble MH, Enoka RM (1991) Mechanisms underlying the training effects associated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Phys Ther 71:273–280 (discussion 280–272)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Vanderthommen M, Duchateau J (2007) Electrical stimulation as a modality to improve performance of the neuromuscular system. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 35:180–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Vanderthommen M, Depresseux JC, Dauchat L, Degueldre C, Croisier JL, Crielaard JM (2000) Spatial distribution of blood flow in electrically stimulated human muscle: a positron emission tomography study. Muscle Nerve 23:482–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vanderthommen M, Duteil S, Wary C, Raynaud JS, Leroy-Willig A, Crielaard JM, Carlier PG (2003) A comparison of voluntary and electrically induced contractions by interleaved 1H- and 31P-NMRS in humans. J Appl Physiol 94:1012–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Vaquero AF, Chicharro JL, Gil L, Ruiz MP, Sanchez V, Lucia A, Urrea S, Gomez MA (1998) Effects of muscle electrical stimulation on peak VO2 in cardiac transplant patients. Int J Sports Med 19:317–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vivodtzev I, Pepin JL, Vottero G, Mayer V, Porsin B, Levy P, Wuyam B (2006) Improvement in quadriceps strength and dyspnea in daily tasks after 1 month of electrical stimulation in severely deconditioned and malnourished COPD. Chest 129:1540–1548PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vivodtzev I, Lacasse Y, Maltais F (2008) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the lower limbs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev 28:79–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Wust RC, Morse CI, de Haan A, Jones DA, Degens H (2008) Sex differences in contractile properties and fatigue resistance of human skeletal muscle. Exp Physiol 93:843–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Zizic TM, Hoffman KC, Holt PA, Hungerford DS, O’Dell JR, Jacobs MA, Lewis CG, Deal CL, Caldwell JR, Cholewczynski JG et al (1995) The treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee with pulsed electrical stimulation. J Rheumatol 22:1757–1761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Zory R, Boerio D, Jubeau M, Maffiuletti NA (2005) Central and peripheral fatigue of the knee extensor muscles induced by electromyostimulation. Int J Sports Med 26:847–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuromuscular Research LaboratorySchulthess ClinicZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations