European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 109, Issue 6, pp 1155–1162 | Cite as

Kinematical changes in swimming front Crawl and Breaststroke with the AquaTrainer® snorkel

  • Tiago Barbosa
  • António José Silva
  • António Malvas Reis
  • Mário Costa
  • Nuno Garrido
  • Fernando Policarpo
  • Victor Machado ReisEmail author
Original Article


The aim of the present study was to assess the kinematical changes when swimming maximal bouts in Front Crawl and Breaststroke with the AquaTrainer® snorkel. Thirteen male swimmers (7 at Breaststroke and 6 at Front Crawl) of national level performed randomly two maximal bouts of 100-m swims: one bout using the AquaTrainer® snorkel (snorkel swim) and another one without the snorkel (free swim). The swims were videotaped in sagital plane with a pair of cameras providing 2D kinematics evaluation. The following measures were assessed: swimming performance (T100), stroke cycle period (P), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL), swimming velocity (v), swimming efficiency as estimated by the stroke index (SI), speed fluctuation (dv) and the mathematical characterisation of dv. T100 was significantly higher when swimming with the snorkel than in free swimming at Breaststroke (Δ = 6.26%) and at Front Crawl (Δ = 4.75%). P, SR and SL, as well as SI and dv did not present significant differences. The main finding of the study was that changes in the swimming velocity imposed by the use of the Aquatrainer® do not seem due to changes in general kinematics or swimming efficiency.


Competitive swimming Stroke rate Stroke length Speed fluctuation Swimming snorkel 



This investigation was supported by grants of FCT (POCI/DES/58362/2004). All the experiments herein comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tiago Barbosa
    • 1
    • 2
  • António José Silva
    • 2
  • António Malvas Reis
    • 2
  • Mário Costa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Nuno Garrido
    • 2
  • Fernando Policarpo
    • 2
  • Victor Machado Reis
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Sports SciencesPolytechnic Institute of BragançaBragançaPortugal
  2. 2.Research Centre in Sport, Health and Human DevelopmentUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Sport Sciences, Exercise and HealthUniversity of Trás-os-Montes and Alto DouroVila RealPortugal

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