Fat oxidation rate during and after a low- or high-intensity exercise in severely obese Caucasian adolescents

  • Stefano Lazzer
  • Claudio Lafortuna
  • Carlo Busti
  • Raffaela Galli
  • Tiziana Tinozzi
  • Fiorenza Agosti
  • Alessandro Sartorio
Original Article

Abstract

The objective is to study the effects of low-intensity (LI) or high-intensity (HI) equicaloric exercises on energy expenditure (EE) and substrate oxidation rate during and after the exercises in severely obese Caucasian adolescents. Twenty obese boys (BMI-SDS 3.04 ± 0.52, %Fat Mass 38.2 ± 2.1%) aged 14–16 years (pubertal stage >3) participated in this study. Maximal oxygen uptake (V′O2max) and maximal fat oxidation rate were determined with indirect calorimetry using a graded exercise test on a treadmill. EE and substrate oxidation rate during equicaloric low-intensity (LI, 42% V′O2max for 45 min) and high-intensity (HI, 67% V′O2max for 30 min) exercises on a treadmill and during post-exercise recovery period (60 min) were determined with indirect calorimetry. Maximal fat oxidation rate was observed at 42 ± 6% V′O2max (62 ± 5% HRmax) and fat oxidation rate was 0.45 ± 0.07 g/min. The total amounts of EE, during the LI and HI exercises, and the post-exercise recovery periods were not significantly different (1,884 ± 250 vs. 1,973 ± 201 kJ, p = 0.453), but the total amount of fat oxidised was significantly higher (+9.9 g, +55.7%, p < 0.001) during the LI exercise than during the HI exercise. However, fat oxidation rates during the post-exercise recovery periods were not significantly different following LI and HI exercises. Total fat oxidised was significantly higher during the LI than during the HI exercise in obese adolescents. However, the equicaloric exercise intensity did not influence EE, fat and carbohydrate oxidation rate during the recovery period.

Keywords

Fat metabolism Obesity Exercise intensity Energy metabolism Body composition 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to the adolescents for their kind collaboration and the nursing staff of the Division of Auxology, Italian Institute for Auxology, IRCCS, for their qualified assistance during the clinical study, to Dr. PG. Marinone, Dr. R. Zennaro and Dr S. Marzorati for their help with measurements. We thank Dr M. Vermorel (INRA, France) for his valuable advice in analysing the data and for improving the manuscript, and Dr J. M. H. Buckler for the English revision. The study was supported by Progetti di Ricerca Corrente, Italian Institute for Auxology, Milan, Italy.

References

  1. Achten J, Gleeson M, Jeukendrup AE (2002) Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34(1):92–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Achten J, Venables MC, Jeukendrup AE (2003) Fat oxidation rates are higher during running compared with cycling over a wide range of intensities. Metabolism 52(6):747–752CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bahr R, Hostmark AT, Newsholme EA, Gronnerod O, Sejersted OM (1991) Effect of exercise on recovery changes in plasma levels of FFA, glycerol, glucose and catecholamines. Acta Physiol Scand 143(1):105–115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brandou F, Dumortier M, Garandeau P, Mercier J, Brun JF (2003) Effects of a two-month rehabilitation program on substrate utilization during exercise in obese adolescents. Diabetes Metab 29(1):20–27CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brandou F, Savy-Pacaux AM, Marie J, Brun JF, Mercier J (2006) Comparison of the type of substrate oxidation during exercise between pre and post pubertal markedly obese boys. Int J Sports Med 27(5):407–414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Broeder CE, Brenner M, Hofman Z, Paijmans IJ, Thomas EL, Wilmore JH (1991) The metabolic consequences of low and moderate intensity exercise with or without feeding in lean and borderline obese males. Int J Obes 15(2):95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Brooks GA, Mercier J (1994) Balance of carbohydrate and lipid utilization during exercise: the “crossover” concept. J Appl Physiol 76(6):2253–2261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cacciari E, Milani S, Balsamo A, Spada E, Bona G, Cavallo L, Cerutti F, Gargantini L, Greggio N, Tonini G, Cicognani A (2006) Italian cross-sectional growth charts for height, weight and BMI (2 to 20 yr). J Endocrinol Invest 29(7):581–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Flatt JP (1993) Dietary fat, carbohydrate balance, and weight maintenance. Ann N Y Acad Sci 683:122–140CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Frayn KN (1983) Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange. J Appl Physiol 55(2):628–634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Galster AD, Clutter WE, Cryer PE, Collins JA, Bier DM (1981) Epinephrine plasma thresholds for lipolytic effects in man: measurements of fatty acid transport with [l–13C]palmitic acid. J Clin Invest 67(6):1729–1738CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gore CJ, Withers RT (1990) Effect of exercise intensity and duration on postexercise metabolism. J Appl Physiol 68(6):2362–2368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Henderson GC, Fattor JA, Horning MA, Faghihnia N, Johnson ML, Mau TL, Luke-Zeitoun M, Brooks GA (2007) Lipolysis and fatty acid metabolism in men and women during the postexercise recovery period. J Physiol 584(Pt 3):963–981CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeukendrup AE, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ (1998) Fat metabolism during exercise: a review. Part I: fatty acid mobilization and muscle metabolism. Int J Sports Med 19(4):231–244CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kuo CC, Fattor JA, Henderson GC, Brooks GA (2005) Lipid oxidation in fit young adults during postexercise recovery. J Appl Physiol 99(1):349–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lafortuna CL, Agosti F, Galli R, Busti C, Lazzer S, Sartorio A (2008) The energetic and cardiovascular response to treadmill walking and cycle ergometer exercise in obese women. Eur J Appl Physiol 103(6):707–717CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lazzer S, Boirie Y, Poissonnier C, Petit I, Duché P, Taillardat M, Meyer M, Vermorel M (2005) Longitudinal changes in activity patterns, physical capacities, energy expenditure, and body composition in severely obese adolescents during a multidisciplinary weight-reduction program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 29(1):37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lazzer S, Busti C, Agosti F, De Col A, Pozzo R, Sartorio A (2007) Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise in severely obese Caucasian adolescents. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 67(4):582–588Google Scholar
  19. Lazzer S, Bedogni G, Agosti F, De Col A, Mornati D, Sartorio A (2008) Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, air displacement plethysmography and bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in severely obese Caucasian children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 100(4):918–924CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lobstein T, Baur L, Uauy R (2004) Obesity in children and young people: a crisis in public health. Obes Rev 5 Suppl 1:4–85Google Scholar
  21. Lukaski HC (1987) Methods for the assessment of human body composition: traditional and new. Am J Clin Nutr 46(4):537–556PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Maffeis C, Zaffanello M, Pellegrino M, Banzato C, Bogoni G, Viviani E, Ferrari M, Tato L (2005) Nutrient oxidation during moderately intense exercise in obese prepubertal boys. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90(1):231–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Melanson EL, Sharp TA, Seagle HM, Horton TJ, Donahoo WT, Grunwald GK, Hamilton JT, Hill JO (2002) Effect of exercise intensity on 24-h energy expenditure and nutrient oxidation. J Appl Physiol 92(3):1045–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Moller N, Schmitz O, Porksen N, Moller J, Jorgensen JO (1992) Dose–response studies on the metabolic effects of a growth hormone pulse in humans. Metabolism 41(2):172–175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Phelain JF, Reinke E, Harris MA, Melby CL (1997) Postexercise energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in young women resulting from exercise bouts of different intensity. J Am Coll Nutr 16(2):140–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Saris WH, Schrauwen P (2004) Substrate oxidation differences between high- and low-intensity exercise are compensated over 24 hours in obese men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28(6):759–765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Schrauwen P, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Saris WH, Westerterp KR (1997) Role of glycogen-lowering exercise in the change of fat oxidation in response to a high-fat diet. Am J Physiol 273(3 Pt 1):E623–E629Google Scholar
  28. Sedlock DA, Fissinger JA, Melby CL (1989) Effect of exercise intensity and duration on postexercise energy expenditure. Med Sci Sports Exerc 21(6):662–666PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Smith J, Mc Naughton L (1993) The effects of intensity of exercise on excess postexercise oxygen consumption and energy expenditure in moderately trained men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 67(5):420–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Swinburn B, Ravussin E (1993) Energy balance or fat balance? Am J Clin Nutr 57(5 Suppl):766S–770S; discussion 770S–771SGoogle Scholar
  31. Tanner JM (1962) Growth at adolescence. Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  32. Thompson DL, Townsend KM, Boughey R, Patterson K, Bassett DR Jr (1998) Substrate use during and following moderate- and low-intensity exercise: implications for weight control. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 78(1):43–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Treadway JL, Young JC (1990) Failure of prior low-intensity exercise to potentiate the thermic effect of glucose. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 60(5):377–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Tremblay A, Simoneau JA, Bouchard C (1994) Impact of exercise intensity on body fatness and skeletal muscle metabolism. Metabolism 43(7):814–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. van Aggel-Leijssen DP, Saris WH, Homan M, van Baak MA (2001) The effect of exercise training on beta-adrenergic stimulation of fat metabolism in obese men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25(1):16–23CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Venables MC, Jeukendrup AE (2008) Endurance training and obesity: effect on substrate metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40(3):495–502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Wei M, Kampert JB, Barlow CE, Nichaman MZ, Gibbons LW, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Blair SN (1999) Relationship between low cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in normal-weight, overweight, and obese men. JAMA 282(16):1547–1553CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Weir JB (1949) New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special references to protein metabolism. J Physiol (Lond) 109:1–9Google Scholar
  39. Wolfe RR, Nadel ER, Shaw JH, Stephenson LA, Wolfe MH (1986) Role of changes in insulin and glucagon in glucose homeostasis in exercise. J Clin Invest 77(3):900–907CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Lazzer
    • 1
    • 2
  • Claudio Lafortuna
    • 3
  • Carlo Busti
    • 1
  • Raffaela Galli
    • 1
  • Tiziana Tinozzi
    • 4
  • Fiorenza Agosti
    • 1
  • Alessandro Sartorio
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCSLaboratorio Sperimentale di Ricerche Auxo-EndocrinologicheMilanItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie BiomedicheUniversità degli Studi di UdineUdineItaly
  3. 3.Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare del Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheSegrateItaly
  4. 4.Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCSServizio di DietologiaVerbaniaItaly
  5. 5.Istituto Auxologico Italiano, IRCCSDivisione di AuxologiaVerbaniaItaly

Personalised recommendations