Do sessions of cryostimulation have influence on white blood cell count, level of IL6 and total oxidative and antioxidative status in healthy men?

Abstract

The influence of extremely low temperatures on the human body and physiological reactions are not fully recognized. It has been postulated that cryostimulation could modify immunological reactions, leukocytes mobilization and levels of cytokines. The aim of this research was to estimate the influence of a ten sessions 3-min-long exposures to cryogenic temperature (−130°C) on the white blood cell (WBC) count, level of IL6 and the total oxidative and antioxidative status in 15 young, clinically healthy men. Blood samples were obtained in the morning before cryostimulation, again 30 min after treatment and the next day in the morning, both during the first and tenth session. The WBC count, level of IL6 and total lipid peroxides as the total oxidative status and the total antioxidative status (TAS), were measured. After completing a total of ten whole-body therapy sessions a significant increase in WBC count, especially lymphocytes and monocytes was noted. There was an increase in level of IL6 after first and the last cryostimulation the most pronounced after tenth session. On the contrary the TAS level decreased significant after the treatment. It was concluded that repeated expositions to extremely low temperatures use in cryostimulation have mobilization effect on immunological system.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Banfi G, Krajewska M, Melegati G, Patacchini M (2008) Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on haematological values in athletes. Br J Sports Med 42:558–559

    Google Scholar 

  2. Banfi G, Melegati G, Barassi A, Dogliotti G, d’Eril GM, Dugué B, Corsi MM (2009) Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on serum mediators of inflammation and serum muscle enzymes in athletes. J Thermal Biol 34:55–59

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Blatteis CM (1998) Physiology and pathophysiology of temperature regulation. World Scientific, Singapore

    Google Scholar 

  4. Brenner IK, Castellani J, Gabaree C, Young A, Zamecnik J, Shephard R, Shek PN (1999) Immune changes in human during cold exposure: effect of prior heating and exercise. J Appl Physiol 87:699–710

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Castellani JW, Brenner IK, Rhind SG (2002) Cold exposure: human immune responses intracellular cytokine expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:2013–2020

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Chudecka M, Lubkowska A, Klimek A, Szygula Z (2008) The impact of systemic cryotherapy on distribution and the dynamics of temperature changes in the selected parts of body. Acta Bio Opt Inform Med 1(14):103–106

    Google Scholar 

  7. Dugué B, Leppänen E (2000) Adaptation related to cytokines in man: effects of regular swimming in ice-cold water. Clin Physiol 20:114–121

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Dugué B, Smolander J, Westerlund T, Oksa J, Nieminen R, Moilanen E, Mikkelsson M (2005) Acute and long-term effects of winter swimming and whole-body cryotherapy on plasma antioxidative capacity in healthy women. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 65:395–402

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Fairchild KD, Viscardi RM, Hester L, Sing IS, Hasday JD (2000) Effects of hypothermia and hyperthermia on cytokine production by cultured human mononuclear phagocytes from adults and newborn. J Interferon Cytokine Res 20(12):1049–1055

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Ganta GC, Helwig BG, Blecha F, Ganta RR, Cober R, Parimi S, Musch TI, Fels RJ, Kenney MJ (2006) Hypothermia-enhanced splenic cytokine gene expression is independent of the sympathetic nervous system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R558–565

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Hubbard TJ, Aronson SL, Denegar CR (2004) Does cryotherapy hasten return to participation? A systemic review. J Athl Train 39(1):88–94

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Jackowska E, Pisula A, Drulis-Kawa Z, Guz K, Bugla-Plokonska G, Doroszkiewicz W, Strek W (2006) Changes of level of immunoglobulins and C3 and C4 proteins in serum during whole body cryotherapy. Acta Bio Opt Inform Med 2(12):101–103

    Google Scholar 

  13. Jansky P, Jansky L (2002) Sites and cellular mechanisms of human adrenergic thermogenesis—a review. J Thermal Biol 27:269–277

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Jansky L, Pospisilova D, Honzova H, Ulicny B, Sramek P, Zeman V, Kaminkova J (1996) Immune system of cold-exposed and cold-adapted humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 72:445–450

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Ji LL (2007) Antioxidant signaling in skeletal muscle: a brief review. Exp Gerontol 42:582–593

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Korzonek-Szlacheta I, Wielkoszynski T, Stanek A, Swietochowska E, Karpe J, Sieron A (2007) Influence of whole body cryotherapy on the levels of some hormones in professional footballers. Pol J Endocrinol 58(1):27–32

    Google Scholar 

  17. Kozyreva TV, Gonsales EV, Eliseeva LS (2004) β-Adrenoreceptor participation in the formation of the thermoregulatory and immune responses under the effect of rapid deep cooling. J Thermal Biol 29:819–824

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Leppäluoto J, Westerlund T, Huttunen P, Oksa J, Smolander J, Dugué B, Mikkelsson M (2008) Effects of long-term whole-body cold exposures on plasma concentrations of ACTH, beta-endorphin, cortisol, catecholamines and cytokines in healthy females. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 68:145–153

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Lubkowska A, Chudecka M, Klimek A, Szygula Z, Fraczek B (2008) Acute effect of a single whole-body cryostimulation on prooxidant-antioxidant balance in blond of healthy, young men. J Thermal Biol 33:464–467

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Lubkowska A, Dolegowska B, Szygula Z, Klimek A (2009) Activity of selected enzymes in erythrocytes and level of plasma antioxidants in response to single whole-body cryostimulation in humans. Scan J Clin Lab Invest 69:387–394

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Marino F, Sockler JM, Fry JM (1998) Thermoregulatory, metabolic and sympathoadrenal responses to repeated brief exposure to cold. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 58:537–545

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Moshage H (1997) Cytokines and the hepatic acute phase response. J Pathol 181:257–266

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Opal SM, DePalo VA (2000) Anti-inflammatory cytokines. Chest 117:1162–1172

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Pedersen BK (2006) The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise: its role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease control. Essays Biochem 42:105–117

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Pedersen BK, Steensberg A, Schjerling P (2001) Muscle-derived interleukin-6: possible biological effects. J Physiol 536:329–337

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Rhind SG, Castellani JW, Brenner IKM, Shephard RJ, Zamecnik J, Montain SJ, Young AJ, Shek PN (2001) Intracellular monocyte and serum cytokine expression is modulated by exhausting exercise and cold exposure. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291:R66–R75

    Google Scholar 

  27. Siems WG, van Kuijk FJ, Maass R, Brenke R (1994) Uric acid and glutathione levels during short-term whole body cold exposure. Free Radic Biol Med 16(3):299–305

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Siems WG, Brenke R, Sommerburg O, Grune T (1999) Improved antioxidative protection in winter swimmers. Q J Med 92:193–198

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Stanek A, Cieslar G, Rosmus-Kuczia I, Matyszkiewicz B, Romuk E, Skrzep-Poloczek B, Birkner E, Sieroń A (2006) Influence of whole body cryotherapy on blood morphology parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and in healthy volunteers. Acta Bio Opt Inform Med 12(3):207–210

    Google Scholar 

  30. Stanek A, Cieslar G, Sieron A (2007) Therapeutic application of cryotherapy in clinical practice. Baln Pol 107:37–45

    Google Scholar 

  31. Steensberg A, Fischer CP, Keller C, Møller K, Pedersen BK (2003) IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans. Am J Endocrinol Metab 285:433–437

    Google Scholar 

  32. Straub RH, Pongratz G, Hirvonen H, Pohjolainen T, Mikkelsson M, Leirisalo-Repo M (2009) Acute cold stress in rheumatoid arthritis inadequately activates stress responses and induces an increase of interleukin 6. Ann Rheum Dis 68(4):572–578

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Totsuka M, Sato K, Sugawara K (2002) Systemic inflammatory responses to exhaustive exercise. Cytokines kinetics. Exerc Immunol Rev 8:6–48

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Swenson C, Swärd L, Karlsson J (1996) Cryotherapy in sports medicine. Scand J Med Sci Sports 6:193–200

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Tilg H, Trehu E, Atkins MB, Dinarello CA, Mier JW (1994) Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as an anti-inflammatory cytokine: induction of circulating IL-1 receptor antagonist and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55. Blood 83:113–118

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. van Furth R (1998) Human monocytes and cytokines. Res Immunol 149:719–720

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Walsh NP, Whitham M, Melegati G, Patacchini M (2006) Exercising in environmental extremes. A greater threat to immune function? Sports Med 36:121–941

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Xing Z, Gauldie J, Cox G, Baumann H, Jordana M, Lei XF, Achong MK (1998) IL-6 an antiinflammatory cytokine required for conytolling local or systemic acute inflammatory responses. J Clin Invest 101(2):311–320

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This paper was supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Grant no N N404 027235. We are very grateful to Ms. Danuta Charland for correcting the English grammar and style of the final version of the manuscript.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zbigniew Szygula.

Additional information

Communicated by T. Watanabe, S. A. Ward.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lubkowska, A., Szygula, Z., Klimek, A.J. et al. Do sessions of cryostimulation have influence on white blood cell count, level of IL6 and total oxidative and antioxidative status in healthy men?. Eur J Appl Physiol 109, 67–72 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1207-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Cryostimulation
  • White blood cell count
  • Interleukin-6
  • Total oxidative and antioxidative capacity