Cardiac output and oxygen uptake relationship during physical effort in men and women over 60 years old

  • Paulo T. V. Farinatti
  • Pedro P. S. Soares
Original Article


This study investigated the relationship between oxygen uptake (VO2), cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) in 54 men and 77 women (age = 69 ± 5 years) during incremental effort. Subjects performed a maximal cycle-ergometer test and VO2 was directly measured. HR and SV were assessed by ECG and cardiograph impedance. Regression equations were calculated for Q–VO2, HR–VO2, and Q–HR relationships. The equations obtained for women were (a) Q (l min−1) = 2.61 + 4.67 VO2 (l min−1)(r 2 = 0.84); (b) HR (bpm) = 62.03 + 46.55 VO2 (l min−1) (r 2 = 0.72); (c) \({\text{SV}\,{\text{(ml)}}}=100.6[1- {\text{e}}^{-2.6\; {\text{VO}_2}\;{(1\,{\text{min}}^{-1})}}]\) (r 2 = 0.41); (d) HR (bpm) = 41.48 + 9.24 Q (l min−1) (r 2 = 0.73). Equations for men were (a) Q (l min−1) = 2.52 + 5.70 VO2 (l min−1) (r 2 = 0.89); (b) HR (bpm) = 66.31 + 32.35 VO2 (l min−1) (r 2 = 0.72); (c) \({\text{SV}\,{\text{(ml)}}}=143.7[1- {\text{e}}^{-1.7\; {\text{VO}_2}\;{(1\,{\text{min}}^{-1})}}]\) (r 2 = 0.47); (d) HR (bpm) = 56.33 + 5.25 Q (l min−1) (r 2 = 0.69). The intercepts for Q–VO2 and HR–VO2 equations were similar for both genders, but the slopes were different (P < 0.05). The SV increased from baseline to 50–60% of VO2 peak in both groups. No gender effect was found in SV increasing pattern, but the absolute values were in general higher for men (P > 0.05). A significant difference between men and women was observed for both slopes and intercepts in the Q–HR relationship (P < 0.05). In conclusion, (a) Q–VO2 relation was linear during progressive effort; (b) regression intercepts were similar, but the slopes were higher for men compared to women; (c) SV–VO2 relationship was nonlinear and maximum SV was reached at very submaximal workload; (d) older men exhibited higher Q upward potential as well higher SV but lower HR for a given submaximal workload than women of similar age.


Exercise Aging Cardiopulmonary exercise test Cardiograph impedance Linear regression 



This study was partially supported by a grant from the Brazilian Council for Research Development (CNPq, process 305729/2006-3) and Carlos Chagas Foundation for the Research Support in Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ, process E26/102.916/2008). The authors thank Prof. Jacques Henri-Paul Vanfraechem from the Université Libre de Bruxelles for the valuable support during data assessment.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paulo T. V. Farinatti
    • 1
    • 2
  • Pedro P. S. Soares
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Physical Activity and Health Promotion Laboratory - LABSAUPhysical Education and Sports Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro - UERJ Rio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Sciences of Physical Activity Graduate ProgramSalgado de Oliveira UniversityNiteróiBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Physiology and PharmacologyFluminense Federal UniversityNiteróiBrazil

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