Advertisement

Impact of Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test versus soccer match on physiological, biochemical and neuromuscular parameters

  • José Magalhães
  • António Rebelo
  • Eduardo Oliveira
  • João Renato Silva
  • Franklim Marques
  • António Ascensão
Original Article

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) versus soccer match on heart rate (HR), muscle damage, redox status, blood leukocytes and neuromuscular function throughout 72 h recovery. Sixteen male soccer players (21.3 ± 1.1 years; 175.0 ± 6.0 cm; 70.7 ± 6.3 kg) completed LIST and performed a soccer match separated by 2 weeks and data were collected before, 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h after LIST and match. HR, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, myoglobin (Mb), uric acid (UA), protein sulfhydryls (–SH), malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, total antioxidant status (TAS), blood leukocyte counts, delayed onset muscle soreness, 20 m sprint and jump performances, and maximal isokinetic knee extension and flexion were analyzed. HR after LIST was significantly lower than after the match. Post-match TAS was lower and UA was higher than after LIST. Thirty minutes and 24 h after soccer MDA was higher and –SH was lower than after LIST (P < 0.05). LIST and soccer match induced elevation in total leukocytes and a reduction in lymphocytes at 30 min. This reduction in blood lymphocytes 30 min after match was lower than after LIST. In conclusion, the impact of both exercises did not differ regarding the observed muscle damage markers and some neuromuscular parameters, although soccer requires higher cardiac demand and induced higher changes on redox status, adenine nucleotide metabolism and on lymphocyte counts than LIST, which should be taken into account when using LIST to simulate a match to study these type of physiological and biochemical-related endpoints.

Keywords

Intermittent exercise Muscle damage Oxidative damage Antioxidants Fatigue and recovery 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank to soccer players involved in the study for their committed participation. The excellent technical and practical assistance and skillful involvement of Sergio Ribeiro, Ricardo Ladeira, Laura Pereira, Bárbara Duarte, Henrique Reguengo, and camera operators as well as the friendly help of André Seabra in the statistics revision is also appreciated. The authors are grateful to City Council of Maia for providing the pitch where soccer match was carried out. António Ascensão is supported by a grant from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BPD/42525/2007).

References

  1. Andersson H, Raastad T, Nilsson J, Paulsen G, Garthe I, Kadi F (2008) Neuromuscular fatigue and recovery in elite female soccer: effects of active recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:372–380CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ascensao A, Ferreira R, Marques F, Oliveira E, Azevedo V, Soares J, Magalhaes J (2007) Effect of off-road competitive motocross race on plasma oxidative stress and damage markers. Br J Sports Med 41:101–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ascensao A, Rebelo A, Oliveira E, Marques F, Pereira L, Magalhaes J (2008) Biochemical impact of a soccer match—analysis of oxidative stress and muscle damage markers throughout recovery. Clin Biochem 41:841–851CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bailey DM, Erith SJ, Griffin PJ, Dowson A, Brewer DS, Gant N, Williams C (2007) Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running. J Sports Sci 25:1163–1170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bangsbo J (1994) The physiology of soccer—with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl 619:1–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bishop NC, Blannin AK, Robson PJ, Walsh NP, Gleeson M (1999) The effects of carbohydrate supplementation on immune responses to a soccer-specific exercise protocol. J Sports Sci 17:787–796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bottas R, Linnamo V, Nicol C, Komi PV (2005) Repeated maximal eccentric actions causes long-lasting disturbances in movement control. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:62–69CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooper CE, Vollaard NB, Choueiri T, Wilson MT (2002) Exercise, free radicals and oxidative stress. Biochem Soc Trans 30:280–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Drust B, Reilly T, Cable NT (2000) Physiological responses to laboratory-based soccer-specific intermittent and continuous exercise. J Sports Sci 18:885–892CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Foskett A, Williams C, Boobis L, Tsintzas K (2008) Carbohydrate availability and muscle energy metabolism during intermittent running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:96–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Greig MP, McNaughton LR, Lovell RJ (2006) Physiological and mechanical response to soccer-specific intermittent activity and steady-state activity. Res Sports Med (Print) 14:29–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hertogh C, Chamari K, Damiani M, Martin R, Hachana Y, Blonc S, Hue O (2005) Effects of adding a preceding run-up on performance, blood lactate concentration and heart rate during maximal intermittent vertical jumping. J Sports Sci 23:937–942CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Hu M-L (1990) Measurement of protein thiol groups and GSH in plasma. In: Parker L (ed) Methods in enzymology. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 380–385Google Scholar
  14. Ispirlidis I, Fatouros IG, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, Michailidis I, Douroudos I, Margonis K, Chatzinikolaou A, Kalistratos E, Katrabasas I, Alexiou V, Taxildaris K (2008) Time-course of changes in inflammatory and performance responses following a soccer game. Clin J Sport Med 18:423–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kingsley MI, Wadsworth D, Kilduff LP, McEneny J, Benton D (2005) Effects of phosphatidylserine on oxidative stress following intermittent running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:1300–1306CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Krustrup P, Mohr M, Steensberg A, Bencke J, Kjaer M, Bangsbo J (2006) Muscle and blood metabolites during a soccer game: implications for sprint performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1165–1174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee J, Clarkson PM (2003) Plasma creatine kinase activity and glutathione after eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:930–936CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Leiper JB, Nicholas CW, Ali A, Williams C, Maughan RJ (2005) The effect of intermittent high-intensity running on gastric emptying of fluids in man. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:240–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lowry OH, Rosenbrough N, Farr AL, Radall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. MacIntyre DL, Reid WD, McKenzie DC (1995) Delayed muscle soreness. The inflammatory response to muscle injury and its clinical implications. Sports Med 20:24–40CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Magalhaes J, Oliveira J, Ascensao A, Soares J (2004) Concentric quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic strength in volleyball and soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 44:119–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Magalhaes J, Ferreira R, Marques F, Oliveira E, Soares J, Ascensão A (2007) Indoor climbing elicits plasma oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:955–963CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Malm C, Nyberg P, Engstrom M, Sjodin B, Lenkei R, Ekblom B, Lundberg I (2000) Immunological changes in human skeletal muscle and blood after eccentric exercise and multiple biopsies. J Physiol 529(Pt 1):243–262CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J (2003) Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. J Sports Sci 21:519–528CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J (2005) Fatigue in soccer: a brief review. J Sports Sci 23:593–599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Morris JG, Nevill ME, Boobis LH, Macdonald IA, Williams C (2005) Muscle metabolism, temperature, and function during prolonged, intermittent, high-intensity running in air temperatures of 33 degrees and 17 degrees C. Int J Sports Med 26:805–814CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Nicholas CW, Williams C, Lakomy HK, Phillips G, Nowitz A (1995) Influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance capacity during intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running. J Sports Sci 13:283–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Nicholas CW, Tsintzas K, Boobis L, Williams C (1999) Carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion during intermittent high-intensity running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1280–1286CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Nicholas CW, Nuttall FE, Williams C (2000) The Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test: a field test that simulates the activity pattern of soccer. J Sports Sci 18:97–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Quindry JC, Stone WL, King J, Broeder CE (2003) The effects of acute exercise on neutrophils and plasma oxidative stress. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35:1139–1145CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Reilly T (1997) Energetics of high-intensity exercise (soccer) with particular reference to fatigue. J Sports Sci 15:257–263CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Rohn TT, Hinds TR, Vincenzi FF (1993) Ion transport ATPases as targets for free radical damage. Protection by an aminosteroid of the Ca2+ pump ATPase and Na+/K+ pump ATPase of human red blood cell membranes. Biochem Pharmacol 46:525–534CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Simpson RJ, Florida-James GD, Whyte GP, Black JR, Ross JA, Guy K (2007) Apoptosis does not contribute to the blood lymphocytopenia observed after intensive and downhill treadmill running in humans. Res Sports Med 15:157–174CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Sunderland C, Morris JG, Nevill M (2008) A heat acclimation protocol for team sports. Br J Sports Med 42:327–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Thompson D, Nicholas CW, Williams C (1999) Muscular soreness following prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running. J Sports Sci 17:387–395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Thompson D, Williams C, Kingsley M, Nicholas CW, Lakomy HK, McArdle F, Jackson MJ (2001a) Muscle soreness and damage parameters after prolonged intermittent shuttle-running following acute vitamin C supplementation. Int J Sports Med 22:68–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Thompson D, Williams C, McGregor SJ, Nicholas CW, McArdle F, Jackson MJ, Powell JR (2001b) Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 11:466–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Thompson D, Williams C, Garcia-Roves P, McGregor SJ, McArdle F, Jackson MJ (2003) Post-exercise vitamin C supplementation and recovery from demanding exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 89:393–400CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Thompson D, Bailey DM, Hill J, Hurst T, Powell JR, Williams C (2004) Prolonged vitamin C supplementation and recovery from eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 92:133–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Twist C, Eston R (2005) The effects of exercise-induced muscle damage on maximal intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eur J Appl Physiol 94:652–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Magalhães
    • 1
    • 3
  • António Rebelo
    • 2
  • Eduardo Oliveira
    • 3
  • João Renato Silva
    • 2
  • Franklim Marques
    • 4
  • António Ascensão
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre for Research in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Soccer, Faculty of SportUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Sports Biology, Faculty of SportUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute for Molecular and Cell BiologyUniversity of PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations