European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 107, Issue 2, pp 127–134 | Cite as

Upper but not lower limb resistance training increases arterial stiffness in humans

  • Takanobu Okamoto
  • Mitsuhiko Masuhara
  • Komei Ikuta
Original Article


Resistance training is widely recommended to prevent sarcopenia and osteoporosis. However, the effects of upper and lower limb resistance training on arterial stiffness are unclear. The present study investigates the effects of upper and lower limbs resistance training on arterial stiffness. Thirty young healthy subjects (male 19, female 11, aged 20.1 ± 0.4 years, mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to upper limb RT group (upper limb group, n = 10, male 7, female 3), lower limb RT group (lower limb group, n = 10, male 7, female 3) and sedentary groups (n = 10, male 6, female 4). The upper and lower limb groups performed RT at 80% of one repetition maximum twice each week for 10 weeks. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). In addition, we measured plasma norepinephrine (NE) concentration. baPWV after training in the upper limb group had significantly increased from baseline (P < 0.05). In addition, plasma NE concentration after training in the upper limb group had significantly increased from baseline (P < 0.05). No such changes were observed in the lower limb and sedentary groups. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between baPWV and plasma NE concentration in upper limb group was observed (P < 0.05). In contrast, no significant correlation between baPWV and plasma NE concentration in lower limb and sedentary groups was observed. These findings suggested that upper limbs resistance training increases plasma NE concentration and promotes the increase of arterial stiffness.


Resistance training Arterial stiffness Norepinephrine Upper limbs Lower limbs 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takanobu Okamoto
    • 1
  • Mitsuhiko Masuhara
    • 2
  • Komei Ikuta
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Health Science and Applied PhysiologyKinki Welfare UniversityHyogoJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Exercise Physiology and BiochemistryOsaka University of Health and Sport SciencesOsakaJapan
  3. 3.Institute of Health and Child SciencesOsaka Aoyama UniversityOsakaJapan

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