Effects of acute hypoxia tests on blood markers in high-level endurance athletes
- 461 Downloads
The aim of this study was to determine the response of blood markers to acute hypoxia in high-level endurance athletes before training based on “living high-training low” model. Thirty endurance athletes performed a hypoxic cycling test and spent 3 h at rest in a simulated altitude of 3,000 m. At the end of the hypoxic cycling test, the quantity of the natural antisense transcript of HIF-1α mRNA (aHIF) transcript increased significantly (+37%, P = 0.024). After 3-h exposure, at a simulated altitude of 3,000 m, the amount of HIF-1α mRNA increased significantly (+57%, P = 0.012). Moreover, a large inter-subject range was observed in response to the hypoxic cycling test and to the prolonged hypoxic exposure: −133%/+79% and −82%/+653% for HIF-1α mRNA, 69%/+324% and −76%/+229% for aHIF. This study shows a large inter-variability of blood markers in elite athletes in response to acute hypoxic exposure corroborating previous observations made in other populations.
KeywordsHIF-1α Natural antisense of HIF-1α Leukocyte
This study was funded by the “International Olympic Committee” and the “Ministère de la Jeunesse et des Sports”. The authors would like to thank the athletes for their donation of time and blood. We also thank Fabrice Kwiatkowski for statistics and Glen Foster for careful reading of the manuscript.
- Brugniaux JV, Schmitt L, Robach P, Nicolet G, Fouillot JP, Moutereau S, Lasne F, Pialoux V, Saas P, Chorvot MC, Cornolo J, Olsen NV, Richalet JP (2006) Eighteen days of “living high, training low” stimulate erythropoiesis and enhance aerobic performance in elite middle-distance runners. J Appl Physiol 100:203–211. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00808.2005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gore CJ, Hahn AG, Aughey RJ, Martin DT, Ashenden MJ, Clark SA, Garnham AP, Roberts AD, Slater GJ, McKenna MJ (2001) Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency. Acta Physiol Scand 173:275–286. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.2001.00906.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Jedlickova K, Stockton DW, Chen H, Stray-Gundersen J, Witkowski S, Ri-Li G, Jelinek J, Levine BD, Prchal JT (2003) Search for genetic determinants of individual variability of the erythropoietin response to high altitude. Blood Cells Mol Dis 31:175–182. doi: 10.1016/S1079-9796(03)00153-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mounier R, Pialoux V, Cayre A, Schmitt L, Richalet JP, Robach P, Lasne F, Coudert J, Fellmann N, Clottes (2006) Leukocyte’s HIF-1 expression and training-induced erythropoietic response in swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:1410–1417. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000228955.98215.a1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ponsot E, Dufour SP, Zoll J, Doutrelau S, N’Guessan B, Geny B, Hoppeler H, Lampert E, Mettauer B, Ventura-Clapier R, Richard R (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. II. Improvement of mitochondrial properties in skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 100:1249–1257. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00361.2005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robach P, Schmidt L, Brugniaux JV, Roels B, Millet G, Hellard P, Nicolet G, Duvallet A, Fouillot JP, Moutereau S, Lasne F, Pialoux V, Olsen NV, Richalet JP (2006) Living high–training low: effect on erythropoiesis and aerobic performance in highly-trained swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol 97:695–705. doi: 10.1007/s00421-006-0240-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Uchida T, Rossignol F, Matthay MA, Mounier R, Couette S, Clottes E, Clerici C (2004) Prolonged hypoxia differentially regulates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha expression in lung epithelial cells: implication of natural antisense HIF-1alpha. J Biol Chem 279:14871–14878. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M400461200 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Vestergaard H, Andersen PH, Lund S, Schmitz O, Junker S, Pedersen O (1994) Pre- and post-translational upregulation of muscle-specific glycogen synthase in athletes. Am J Physiol 266:92–101Google Scholar
- Zoll J, Ponsot E, Dufour SP, Doutrelau S, Ventura-Clapier R, Vogt M, Hoppeler H, Richard R, Fluck M (2006) Exercise training in normobaric hypoxia in endurance runners. III. Muscular adaptations of selected gene transcripts. J Appl Physiol 100:258–1266. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00936.2005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar