European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 105, Issue 2, pp 175–183 | Cite as

Effects of secondary warm up following stretching

  • Alan J. PearceEmail author
  • Dawson J. Kidgell
  • James Zois
  • John S. Carlson
Original Article


Evidence suggests that static stretching inhibits muscular power. However, research does not reflect practice whereby individuals follow up stretching with secondary activity. This study investigated muscular power following stretching, and after a second bout of activity. Participants (n = 13) completed 3 randomized testing sessions which included a 5 min warm-up, followed by a vertical jump (VJ) on a force platform; an intervention (static stretching, dynamic, or control), followed by a second VJ. Participants then completed a series of movements, followed by a VJ, up to 60 min post activity. Immediately following the intervention, there was a 10.7% difference in VJ between static and dynamic stretching. The second warm up bout increased VJ height following the dynamic intervention, whereas the static stretching condition did not show any differences. The novel finding from this study demonstrates a second exercise bout does not reverse the effects of static stretching and is still detrimental to VJ.


Warm-up Static stretching Dynamic stretching Vertical jump 



The authors would like to thank Mr. Ian Fairweather for his expert technical assistance in designing and building the force platform and software used in this study. No financial assistance was provided for the completion of this study.


  1. Anderson B, Anderson J, Turlington C (2000) Stretching: 20th anniversary. Shelter Publications, BolinasGoogle Scholar
  2. Avela J, Kyrolainen H, Komi PV (1999) Altered reflex sensitivity after repeated and prolonged passive muscle stretching. J Appl Physiol 86:1283–1291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Behm DG, Button DC, Butt JC (2001) Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Can J Appl Physiol 26:261–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bishop D (2003) Warm up II: performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up. Sports Med 33:483–498. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200333070-00002 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bloomfield J, Ackland TR, Elliot BC (1994) Applied anatomy and biomechanics in sport. Blackwell, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  6. Bradley PS, Olsen PD, Portas MD (2007) The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 21:223–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brandenburg J, Pitney W, Luebbers P et al (2007) Time course of changes in vertical-jumping ability after static stretching. Int J Sports Phys Perf 2:170–181Google Scholar
  8. Church JB, Wiggins MS, Moode FM et al (2001) Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res 15:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cornwell AG, Nelson AG, Heise GD et al (2001) Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on vertical jump performance. J Hum Mov Stud 40:307–324Google Scholar
  10. Edwards RH, Harris RC, Hultman E et al (1972) Effect of temperature on muscle energy metabolism and endurance during successive isometric contractions, sustained to fatigue, of the quadriceps muscle in man. J Physiol 220:335–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ekstrand J, Gillquist J, Liljedahl S (1983) Prevention of soccer injuries: supervision by doctor and physiotherapist. Am J Sports Med 11:116–120. doi: 10.1177/036354658301100302 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faigenbaum AD, Bellucci M, Bernieri A et al (2005) Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on fitness performance in children. J Strength Cond Res 19:376–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Faigenbaum AD, Kang J, McFarland J et al (2006a) Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on anaerobic perfomance in teenage athletes. Pediatr Exerc Sci 17:64–75Google Scholar
  14. Faigenbaum AD, McFarland JE, Schwerdtman JA et al (2006b) Dynamic warm-up protocols, with and without a weighted vest, and fitness performance in high school female athletes. J Athl Train 41:357–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Febbraio MA, Carey MF, Snow RJ et al (1996) Influence of elevated muscle temperature on metabolism during intense, dynamic exercise. Am J Physiol 271:R1251–R1255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Fletcher IM, Anness R (2007) The acute effects of combined static and dynamic stretch protocols on fifty-meter sprint performance in track and field athletes. J Strength Cond Res 21:784–787. doi: 10.1519/R-19475.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fletcher IM, Jones B (2004) The effect of different warm-up stretch protocols on 20 m sprint performance in trained rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 18:885–888. doi: 10.1519/14493.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fowles JR, Sale DG, MacDougall JD (2000) Reduced strength after passive stretch of the human plantarflexors. J Appl Physiol 89:1179–1188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Franklin BA (ed) (2000) ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription, 6th edn. Lippincott/Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia/BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  20. Fredericson M (1996) Common injuries in runners: diagnosis, rehabilitation, and prevention. Sports Med 21:49–72. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199621010-00005 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gollhofer A, Rapp W (1993) Recovery of stretch reflex responses following mechanical stimulation. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 66:415–429. doi: 10.1007/BF00599614 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hilyer JC, Brown KC, Sirles AT et al (1990) A flexibility intervention to reduce the incidence and severity of joint injuries among municipal firefighters. J Occup Med 32:631–637. doi: 10.1097/00043764-199007000-00015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hopkins WG (2000) Reliability from consecutive pairs of trials. A new view of statistics http://www.sportsci.or/stats/xrely.xls. Accessed 24 May 2007
  24. Hubley CL, Kozey JW, Stanish WD (1984) The effects of static exercises and stationary cycling on range of motion at the hip joint. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 6:104–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hutton RS, Atwater SW (1992) Acute and chronic adaptations of muscle proprioceptors in response to increased use. Sports Med 14:406–412. doi: 10.2165/00007256-199214060-00007 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kokkonen J, Nelson AG, Cornwell A (1998) Acute muscle stretching inhibits maximal strength performance. Res Q Exerc Sport 69:411–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Kokkonen J, Nelson AG, Eldredge C et al (2007) Chronic static stretching improves exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39:1825–1831. doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000274403.53826.d3 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kulig K, Andrews JG, Hay JG (eds) (1984) Human strength curves. The Collamore Press, LexingtonGoogle Scholar
  29. Little T, Williams AG (2006) Effects of differential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high-speed motor capacities in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 20:203–207. doi: 10.1519/R-16944.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McMillian DJ, Moore JH, Hatler BS et al (2006) Dynamic vs. static-stretching warm up: the effect on power and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res 20:492–499. doi: 10.1519/18205.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McNeal J, Sands W (2003) Acute static stretching reduces lower extremity power in trained children. Pediatr Exerc Sci 15:139–145Google Scholar
  32. Pollock ML, Gaesser GA, Butcher JD et al (1998) ACSM position stand: the recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30:975–991. doi: 10.1097/00005768-199806000-00032 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Power K, Behm D, Cahill F et al (2004) An acute bout of static stretching: effects on force and jumping performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 36:1389–1396. doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000135775.51937.53 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Robergs AR, Pascoe DD, Costill LD et al (1992) Effects of warm-up on muscle glycogenolysis during intense exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 23:37–43Google Scholar
  35. Rosenbaum D, Hennig EM (1995) The influence of stretching and warm-up exercises on Achilles tendon reflex activity. J Sports Sci 13:481–490. doi: 10.1080/02640419508732265 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Safran MR, Seaber AV, Garrett WE (1989) Warm-up and muscular injury prevention: an update. Sports Med 8:239–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schmidt G (1973) Biomechanical analysis of knee flexion and extension. J Biomech 6:79–92. doi: 10.1016/0021-9290(73)90040-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Shellock FG, Prentice WE (1985) Warming up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports related injuries. Sports Med 2:267–268. doi: 10.2165/00007256-198502040-00004 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shrier I (1999) Stretching before exercise does not reduce the risk of local muscle injury: a critical review of the clinical and basic science literature. Clin J Sport Med 9:221–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shrier I (2002a) Does stretching help prevent injuries? BMJ Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. Shrier I (2002b) Does stretching help prevent injuries? Update. BMJ Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  42. Unick J, Kieffer HS, Cheesman W et al (2005) The acute effects of static and ballistic stretching on vertical jump performance in trained women. J Strength Cond Res 19:206–212. doi: 10.1519/R-14843.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Withers R, Gore C, Gass G et al (2000) Determination of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2) or maximal aerobic power. In: Gore GJ (ed) Physiological tests for elite athletes. Human Kinetics, ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  44. Woolstenhulme MT, Griffiths CM, Woolstenhulme EM et al (2006) Ballistic stretching increases flexibility and acute vertical jump height when combined with basketball activity. J Strength Cond Res 20:799–803. doi: 10.1519/R-18835.1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wright G, Williams L, Greany J et al (2006) Effect of Static Stretching, dynamic stretching, and warm-up on active hip range of motion and vertical jump. Med Sci Sports Exerc 38:S280–S281. doi: 10.1249/00005768-200605001-01217 Google Scholar
  46. Young WB (2007) The use of static stretching in warm-up for training and competition. Int J Sports Physiol Perf 2:212–216Google Scholar
  47. Young WB, Clothier P, Orago L et al (2004a) Acute effects of static stretching on hip flexor and quadriceps flexibility, range of motion and foot speed in kicking a football. J Sci Med Sport 12:230–235Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan J. Pearce
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dawson J. Kidgell
    • 2
  • James Zois
    • 3
  • John S. Carlson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Ageing, Rehabilitation, Exercise and Sport (CARES)Victoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.School of Exercise and Nutrition SciencesDeakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.School of Sport and Exercise ScienceVictoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations