Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 293–300 | Cite as

Energy system contributions in indoor rock climbing

  • Rômulo Cássio de Moraes Bertuzzi
  • Emerson FranchiniEmail author
  • Eduardo Kokubun
  • Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin Kiss
Original Article

Abstract

The present study cross-sectionally investigated the influence of training status, route difficulty and upper body aerobic and anaerobic performance of climbers on the energetics of indoor rock climbing. Six elite climbers (EC) and seven recreational climbers (RC) were submitted to the following laboratory tests: (a) anthropometry, (b) upper body aerobic power, and (c) upper body Wingate test. On another occasion, EC subjects climbed an easy, a moderate, and a difficult route, whereas RC subjects climbed only the easy route. The fractions of the aerobic (W AER), anaerobic alactic (W PCR) and anaerobic lactic \((W_{{\rm [La}^{-}]})\) systems were calculated based on oxygen uptake, the fast component of excess post-exercise oxygen uptake, and changes in net blood lactate, respectively. On the easy route, the metabolic cost was significantly lower in EC [40.3 (6.5) kJ] than in RC [60.1 (8.8) kJ] (P < 0.05). The respective contributions of the W AER, W PCR, and \(W_{\rm [La^{-}]}\) systems in EC were: easy route = 41.5 (8.1), 41.1 (11.4) and 17.4% (5.4), moderate route = 45.8 (8.4), 34.6 (7.1) and 21.9% (6.3), and difficult route = 41.9 (7.4), 35.8 (6.7) and 22.3% (7.2). The contributions of the W AER, W PCR, and \(W_{\rm [La^{-}]}\) systems in RC subjects climbing an easy route were 39.7 (5.0), 34.0 (5.8), and 26.3% (3.8), respectively. These results indicate that the main energy systems required during indoor rock climbing are the aerobic and anaerobic alactic systems. In addition, climbing economy seems to be more important for the performance of these athletes than improved energy metabolism.

Keywords

Oxygen consumption Blood lactate Oxygen debt Energy sources Training status 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to acknowledge the whole team of Ginásio Noventa Graus de Escalada Esportiva (São Paulo, Brazil) for assistance with data collection during the experiments, and the rock climbers involved in this study for their committed participation. We also thank Dr. Valmor A. A. Tricoli for reviewing the manuscript.

References

  1. Åstrand PO, Rodahl K (eds) (1970) Textbook of work physiology. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Bar-Or O (1987) The Wingate anaerobic test: an update on methodology, reliability and validity. Sports Med 4:381–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beneke R, Pollmann C, Bleif I, Leithäuser RM, Hütler M (2002) How anaerobic is the Wingate anaerobic test for humans? Eur J Appl Physiol 87:388–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beneke R, Beyer T, Jachber C, Erasmus J, Hütler M (2004) Energetics of karate kumite. Eur J Appl Physiol 92:518–523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Billat V, Palleja P, Charlaix T, Rizzard P, Janel N (1995) Energy specificity of rock climbing and aerobic capacity in competitive sport rock climbers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 35:20–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bishop D, Edge J, Goodman (2004) Muscle buffer capacity and aerobic fitness are associated with repeated-sprint ability in women. Eur J Appl Physiol 92:540–547Google Scholar
  7. Bourdin C, Teasdale N, Nougier V (1998) Attentional demands and the organization of reaching movements in rock climbing. Res Q Exerc Sport 69:406–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brozek J, Grande F, Anderson J, Keys A (1963) Densitometric analysis of body composition: revision of some quantitative assumptions. Ann NY Acad Sci 110:113–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Geus B, O’Driscoli SV, Meeusen R (2006) Influence of climbing style on physiological responses during indoor rock climbing on routes with the same difficulty. Eur J Appl Physiol 98:489–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. di Prampero PE, Ferretti G (1999) The energetics of anaerobic muscle metabolism: a reappraisal of older and recent concepts. Respir Physiol 118:103–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ferguson RA, Brown MD (1997) Arterial blood pressure and forearm vascular conductance responses to sustained and rhythmic isometric exercise and arterial occlusion in trained rock climbers and untrained sedentary subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 76: 174–180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gastin PB (2001) Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise. Sports Med 31(10):725–741PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Giles LV, Rhodes EC, Taunton JE (2006) The physiology of rock climbing. Sports Med 36(4):529–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gladden LB (2004) Lactate metabolism: a new paradigm for the third millennium J Physiol 1(558):5–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grant S, Hynes V, Whittaker A, Aitchison TC (1996) Anthropometric, strength, endurance and flexibility characteristics of elite and recreational climbers. J Sports Sci 14(4):301-309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grant S, Hasler T, Davies C, Aitchison TC, Wilson J, Whittaker A (2001) A comparison of the anthropometric, strength, endurance and flexibility characteristics of female elite and recreational climbers and non-climbers. J Sports Sci 19:499–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Idström JP, Subramaniam VH, Chance B, Schersten T, Bylund-Fellenius AC (1985) Oxygen dependence of energy metabolism in contracting and recovering rat skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol 17:H40–H48Google Scholar
  18. Inbar O, Bar-Or O (1986) Anaerobic characteristics in male children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 18:264–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jackson AS, Pollock ML (1985) Practical assessment of body composition. Phys Sportsmed 19:76–90Google Scholar
  20. Kaufman MP, Longhurst JC, Rybicki, KJ, Wallach JH, Mitchell JH (1983) Effects of static muscular contraction on impulse activity of groups III and IV in cats. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol 55:105–112Google Scholar
  21. Laursen PB, Jenkins DG (2002) The scientific basis for high-intensity interval training: optimizing training programmes and maximising performance in highly endurance athletes. Sports Med 32:53–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Margaria R, Edwards HT, Dill DB (1933) The possible mechanisms of contracting and paying the oxygen debt and the role of lactic acid in muscular contraction. Am J Physiol 106:689–715Google Scholar
  23. McCully KK, Iotti S, Kendrick K, Wang Z, Posner JD, Leigh J, Chance B (1994) Simultaneous in vivo measurements of HbO2 saturation and PCr kinetics after exercise in normal humans. J Appl Physiol 77:5–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. McMahon S, Jenkins D (2002) Factors affecting the rate of phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense exercise. Sports Med 32(12): 761–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mermier CM, Jannot JM, Parker DL, Swan JG (2000) Physiological and anthropometric determinants of sport climbing performance. Br J Sports Med 34:359–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mermier CM, Robergs RA, McMinn SM, Heyward VH (1997) Energy expenditure and physiological responses during rock climbing. Br J Sports Med 31(3):224–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Norton and Olds (1996) (eds) Anthropometrica. University of New South Wale Press, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  28. Piiper J, Spiller P (1974) Repayment of O2 debt and resynthesis of high-energy phosphates in gastrocnemius muscle of the dog. J Appl Physiol 28:657–662Google Scholar
  29. Quaine F, Martin L, Blanchi JP (1997) The effect of body position and number of supports on wall reaction forces in rock climbing. J Appl Biomech 13:14–23Google Scholar
  30. Saunders PU, Pyne DB, Telford RD, Hawley JA (2004) Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners. Sports Med 34:465–485PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sheel AW, Seddon N, Knigth A, McKenzie DC, Warburton DER (2003) Physiological responses to indoor rock-climbing and their relationship to maximal cycle ergometry. Med Sci Sports Exerc 35: 1225–1231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walsh B, Hooks RB, Hornyak JE, Koch LG, Britton SL, Hogan MC (2006) Enhanced mitochondrial sensitivity creatine in rats bred for high aerobic capacity. J Appl Physiol 100:17565–17569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watts PB (2004) Physiology of difficult rock climbing. Eur J Appl Physiol 91:361–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Watts PB, Drobish KM (1998) Physiological responses to simulated rock climbing at different angles. Med Sci Sports Exerc 30: 1118–1122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Watts PB, Martin DT, Durtschi S (1993) Anthropometric profiles of elite male and female competitive rock climbers. J Sports Sci 11: 113–117PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rômulo Cássio de Moraes Bertuzzi
    • 1
  • Emerson Franchini
    • 1
    Email author
  • Eduardo Kokubun
    • 2
  • Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin Kiss
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Physical Education and SportUniversity of São Paulo (USP)São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Physical Education, Bioscience InstituteSão Paulo State University (UNESP)Rio ClaroBrazil

Personalised recommendations