Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 101, Issue 3, pp 377–383 | Cite as

Improvement of \(\dot{V}\hbox{O}_{2 \max},\) by cardiac output and oxygen extraction adaptation during intermittent versus continuous endurance training

  • Frédéric N. DaussinEmail author
  • Elodie Ponsot
  • Stéphane P. Dufour
  • Evelyne Lonsdorfer-Wolf
  • Stéphane Doutreleau
  • Bernard Geny
  • François Piquard
  • Ruddy Richard
Original Article

Abstract

Improvement of exercise capacity by continuous (CT) versus interval training (IT) remains debated. We tested the hypothesis that CT and IT might improve peripheral and/or central adaptations, respectively, by randomly assigning 10 healthy subjects to two periods of 24 trainings sessions over 8 weeks in a cross-over design, separated by 12 weeks of detraining. Maximal oxygen uptake \((\dot{V}\hbox{O}_{2 \max}),\) cardiac output \((\dot{Q}_{{\max}})\) and maximal arteriovenous oxygen difference \((D_{{\rm a} - {\bar{\rm v}}} \hbox{O}_{2\max})\) were obtained during an exhaustive incremental test before and after each training period. \(\dot{V}\hbox{O}_{2\max}\) and \(\dot{Q}_{{\max}}\) increased only after IT (from 26.3 ± 1.6 to 35.2 ± 3.8 ml min−1 kg−1 and from 17.5 ± 1.3 to 19.5 ± 1.8 l min−1, respectively; P < 0.01). \(D_{{\rm a} - {\bar{\rm v}}} \hbox{O}_{2\max}\) increased after both protocols (from 11.0 ± 0.8 to 12.7 ± 1.0; P < 0.01 and from 11.0 ± 0.8 to 12.1 ± 1.0 ml 100 ml−1P < 0.05 in CT and IT, respectively). At submaximal intensity a significant rightward shift of the \(\dot{Q}/D_{{\rm a} - {\bar{\rm v}}}\hbox{O}_{2}\) relationship appeared only after CT. These results suggest that in isoenergetic training, central and peripheral adaptations in oxygen transport and utilization are training-modality dependant. IT improves both central and peripheral components of \(\dot{V}\hbox{O}_{2\max}\) whereas CT is mainly associated with greater oxygen extraction.

Keywords

Training modality Cardiac output Arteriovenous difference Maximal oxygen consumption Sedentary subjects 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the Clinical Research Department of Strasbourg’s civil hospital and financed by Ministry for Health and Solidarity with a Regional Hospital Protocol of Clinical Research (2002).

References

  1. Baecke JAH, Burena J, Frijters JE (1982) A short questionnaire for measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. Am J Clin Nutr 36:936–942PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaver WL, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ (1986) A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. J Appl Physiol 60:2020–2027PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beere PA, Russell SD, Morey MC, Kitzman DW, Higginbotham MB (1999) Aerobic exercise training can reverse age-related peripheral circulatory changes in healthy older men. Circulation 100:1085–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Charloux A, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Richard R, Lampert E, Oswald-Mammosser M, Mettauer B, Geny B, Lonsdorfer J (2000) A new impedance cardiograph device for the non-invasive evaluation of cardiac output at rest and during exercise: comparison with the “direct” Fick method. Eur J Appl Physiol 82:313–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cunningham DA, McCrimmon D, Vlach LF (1979) Cardiovascular response to interval and continuous training in women. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 41:187–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Edge J, Bishop D, Goodman C (2006) The effects of training intensity on muscle buffer capacity in females. Eur J Appl Physiol 96:97–105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Geny B, Saini J, Mettauer B, Lampert E, Piquard F, Follenius M, Epailly E, Schnedecker B, Eisenmann B, Haberey P, Lonsdorfer J (1996) Effect of short-term endurance training on exercise capacity, haemodynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide secretion in heart transplant recipients. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 73:259–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Gorostiaga EM, Walter CB, Foster C, Hickson RC (1991) Uniqueness of interval and continuous training at the same maintained exercise intensity. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 63:101–107CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Grassi B, Quaresima V, Marconi C, Ferrari M, Cerretelli P (1999) Blood lactate accumulation and muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise. J Appl Physiol 87:348–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hansen JE, Sue DY, Wasserman K (1984) Predicted values for clinical exercise testing. Am Rev Respir Dis 129:S49–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hepple RT, Hogan MC, Stary C, Bebout DE, Mathieu-Costello O, Wagner PD (2000) Structural basis of muscle O(2) diffusing capacity: evidence from muscle function in situ. J Appl Physiol 88:560–566PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hill NS (2006) Pulmonary rehabilitation. Proc Am Thorac Soc 3:66–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Howley ET, Bassett DR Jr, Welch HG (1995) Criteria for maximal oxygen uptake: review and commentary. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27:1292–1301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones AM, Carter H (2000) The effect of endurance training on parameters of aerobic fitness. Sports Med 29:373–386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Kalliokoski KK, Oikonen V, Takala TO, Sipila H, Knuuti J, Nuutila P (2001) Enhanced oxygen extraction and reduced flow heterogeneity in exercising muscle in endurance-trained men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 280:E1015–E1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Londeree BR (1997) Effect of training on lactate/ventilatory thresholds: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc 29:837–843PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. McGuire DK, Levine BD, Williamson JW, Snell PG, Blomqvist CG, Saltin B, Mitchell JH (2001) A 30-year follow-up of the Dallas Bedrest and training study: II. Effect of age on cardiovascular adaptation to exercise training. Circulation 104:1358–1366CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Mujika I, Padilla S (2000) Detraining: loss of training-induced physiological and performance adaptations. Part II: long term insufficient training stimulus. Sports Med 30:145–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ogawa T, Spina RJ, Martin WH, 3rd, Kohrt WM, Schechtman KB, Holloszy JO, Ehsani AA (1992) Effects of aging, sex, and physical training on cardiovascular responses to exercise. Circulation 86:494–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Poole DC, Gaesser GA, Hogan MC, Knight DR, Wagner PD (1992) Pulmonary and leg VO2 during submaximal exercise: implications for muscular efficiency. J Appl Physiol 72:805–810PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Prior BM, Yang HT, Terjung RL (2004) What makes vessels grow with exercise training? J Appl Physiol 97:1119–1128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ready AE, Quinney HA (1982) Alternations in anaerobic threshold as the result of endurancce training and detraining. Med Sci Sports Exerc 14:292–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Richard R, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Charloux A, Doutreleau S, Buchheit M, Oswald-Mammosser M, Lampert E, Mettauer B, Geny B, Lonsdorfer J (2001) Non-invasive cardiac output evaluation during a maximal progressive exercise test, using a new impedance cardiograph device. Eur J Appl Physiol 85:202–207CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Richard R, Lonsdorfer-Wolf E, Dufour S, Doutreleau S, Oswald-Mammosser M, Billat VL, Lonsdorfer J (2004) Cardiac output and oxygen release during very high-intensity exercise performed until exhaustion. Eur J Appl Physiol 93:9–18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Samitz G, Bachl N (1991) Physical training programs and their effects on aerobic capacity and coronary risk profile in sedentary individuals. Design of a long-term exercise training program. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 31:283–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Seals DR, Hagberg JM, Hurley BF, Ehsani AA, Holloszy JO (1984) Endurance training in older men and women. I. Cardiovascular responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol 57:1024–1029PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Shephard RJ (1968) Intensity, duration and frequency of exercise as determinants of the response to a training regime. Int Z Angew Physiol 26:272–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Stratton JR, Levy WC, Cerqueira MD, Schwartz RS, Abrass IB (1994) Cardiovascular responses to exercise. Effects of aging and exercise training in healthy men. Circulation 89:1648–1655PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Stringer W, Wasserman K, Casaburi R, Porszasz J, Maehara K, French W (1994) Lactic acidosis as a facilitator of oxyhemoglobin dissociation during exercise. J Appl Physiol 76:1462–1467CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Whipp BJ (1986) Principles of exercise testing and interpretation. Lea & Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  31. Wasserman K, Stringer WW, Casaburi R, Koike A, Cooper CB (1994) Determination of the anaerobic threshold by gas exchange: biochemical considerations, methodology and physiological effects. Z Kardiol 83(Suppl 3):1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Wenger HA, Bell GJ (1986) The interactions of intensity, frequency and duration of exercise training in altering cardiorespiratory fitness. Sports Med 3:346–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frédéric N. Daussin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Elodie Ponsot
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stéphane P. Dufour
    • 1
    • 2
  • Evelyne Lonsdorfer-Wolf
    • 1
    • 2
  • Stéphane Doutreleau
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bernard Geny
    • 1
    • 2
  • François Piquard
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ruddy Richard
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CHRU of Strasbourg, Physiology and Functional Explorations DepartmentCivil HospitalStrasbourgFrance
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Physiology DepartmentUniversity Louis PasteurStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations