Advertisement

European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 101, Issue 1, pp 125–132 | Cite as

Hematological response and diving response during apnea and apnea with face immersion

  • Erika Schagatay
  • Johan P. A. Andersson
  • Bodil Nielsen
Original Article

Abstract

Increased hematocrit (Hct) attributable to splenic contraction accompanies human apneic diving or apnea with face immersion. Apnea also causes heart rate reduction and peripheral vasoconstriction, i.e., a cardiovascular diving response, which is augmented by face immersion. The aim was to study the role of apnea and facial immersion in the initiation of the hematological response and to relate this to the cardiovascular diving response and its oxygen conservation during repeated apneas. Seven male volunteers performed two series of five apneas of fixed near-maximal duration: one series in air (A) and the other with facial immersion in 10°C water (FIA). Apneas were spaced by 2 min and series by 20 min of rest. Venous blood samples, taken before and after each apnea, were analysed for Hct, hemoglobin concentration (Hb), lactic acid, blood gases and pH. Heart rate, skin capillary blood flow and arterial oxygen saturation were continuously measured non-invasively. A transient increase of Hct and Hb by approximately 4% developed progressively across both series. As no increase of the response resulted with face immersion, we concluded that the apnea, or its consequences, is the major stimulus evoking splenic contraction. An augmented cardiovascular diving response occurred during FIA compared to A. Arterial oxygen saturation remained higher, venous oxygen stores were more depleted and lactic acid accumulation was higher across the FIA series, indicating oxygen conservation with the more powerful diving response. This study shows that the hematological response is not involved in causing the difference in oxygen saturation between apnea and apnea with face immersion.

Keywords

Spleen contraction Hematocrit Oxygen conservation Face immersion Breath-hold 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank all the subjects for participating in the experiments and the laboratory personnel at the August Krogh Institute for assistance with measurements and blood analysis. The study was supported by grants from the Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports (CIF) and the Swedish defence research establishment (FOA).

References

  1. Andersson J, Schagatay E (1998) Arterial oxygen desaturation during apnea in humans. Undersea Hyper Med 25:21–25Google Scholar
  2. Andersson JPA, Linér MH, Rünow E, Schagatay E (2002) Diving response and arterial oxygen saturation during apnea and exercise in breath-hold divers. J Appl Physiol 93:882–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson J, Linér M, Fredsted A, Schagatay E (2004) Cardiovascular and respiratory responses to apneas with and without face immersion in exercising humans. J Appl Physiol 96:1005–1010PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakovic D, Valic Z, Eterovic D, Vukovic I, Obad A, Marinovic-Terzic I, Dujic Z (2003) Spleen volume and blood flow response to repeated breath-hold apneas. J Appl Physiol 95:1460–1466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Espersen K, Frandsen H, Lorentzen T, Kanstrup I-L, Christensen NJ (2002) The human spleen as an erythrocyte reservoir in diving related interventions. J Appl Physiol 92:2071–2079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hentsch U, Ulmer HV (1984) Trainability of underwater breath-holding time. Int J Sport Med 5:343–347Google Scholar
  7. Hurford WE, Hong SK, Park YS, Ahn DW, Shiraki K, Mohri M, Zapol WM (1990) Splenic contraction during breath-hold diving in the Korean ama. J Appl Physiol 69:932–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hurford WE, Hochachka PW, Schneider RC, Guyton GP, Stanek KS, Zapol DG, Liggins GC, Zapol WM (1996) Splenic contraction, catecholamine release, and blood volume redistribution during diving in the Weddell seal. J Appl Physiol 80:298–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hurwitz BE, Furedy JJ (1986) The human dive reflex: an experimental, topographical and physiological analysis. Physiol Behav 36:287–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jung K, Stolle W (1981) Behaviour of heart rate and incidence of arrhythmia in swimming and diving. Biotelem Patient Monit 8:228–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Laub M, Hvid-Jacobsen K, Hovind P, Kanstrup IL, Christensen NJ, Nielsen SL (1993) Spleen emptying and venous hematocrit in humans during exercise. J Appl Physiol 74:1024–1026PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lin YC (1982) Breath-hold diving in terrestrial mammals. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 10:270–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lindholm P, Linnarsson D (2002) Pulmonary gas exchange during apnoea in exercising men. Eur J Appl Physiol 86:487–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Marsh N, Askew D, Beer K, Gerke M, Muller D, Reichman C (1995) Relative contributions of voluntary apnea, exposure to cold and face immersion in water to diving bradycardia in humans. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 22:886–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schagatay E, Andersson J (1998) Diving response and apneic time in humans. Undersea Hyperb Med 25:13–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Schagatay E, van Kampen M, Andersson J (1999) Effects of repeated apneas on apneic time and diving response in non-divers. Undersea Hyperb Med 26:143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Schagatay E, van Kampen M, Emanuelsson S, Holm B (2000) Effects of physical- and apnea training on apneic time and diving response in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 82:161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schagatay E, Andersson J, Hallén M, Pålsson B (2001) Selected contribution: physiological and genomic consequensces of intermittent hypoxia. Role of spleen emptying in prolonging apneas in humans. J Appl Physiol 90:1623–1629PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Schagatay E, Haughey H, Reimers J (2005) Speed of spleen volume changes evoked by serial apneas. Eur J Appl Physiol 93:447–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schuitema E, Holm B (1988) The role of different facial areas in eliciting human diving bradycardia. Acta Physiol Scand 132:119–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Severinghaus JW, Naifeh KH (1987) Accuracy of response of six pulse oximeters to profound hypoxia. Anesthesiology 67:551–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stewart IB, Warburton DER, Hodges ANH, Lyster DM, McKenzie DC (2003) Cardiovascular and splenic responses to exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 94:1619–1626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Qvist J, Hill RD, Schneider RC, Falke KJ, Liggins GC, Guppy M, Elliot RL, Hochachka PW, Zapol WM (1986) Hemoglobin concentrations and blood gas tensions of free-diving Weddell seals. J Appl Physiol 61:1560–1569PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erika Schagatay
    • 1
  • Johan P. A. Andersson
    • 2
  • Bodil Nielsen
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Natural SciencesMid Sweden UniversitySundsvallSweden
  2. 2.Department of Cell and Organism BiologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  3. 3.Institute of Exercise and Sport SciencesUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark

Personalised recommendations