European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 100, Issue 6, pp 737–745 | Cite as

Effects of cooling on human skin and skeletal muscle

  • Osamu Yanagisawa
  • Toshiyuki Homma
  • Toru Okuwaki
  • Daisuke Shimao
  • Hideyuki Takahashi
Original Article

Abstract

To investigate the effects of cooling on local temperature and circulation in the skin and skeletal muscle at different cooling temperatures. Ten male subjects (mean age 24.9 years) participated in this study. Intramuscular temperatures were measured by inserting two 22-gauge temperature probes (needle length; 8 and 18 mm) into the ankle dorsiflexors, while skin temperature was measured using a thermocouple attached to the leg skin anteriorly. Near-infrared spectroscopy was also used to evaluate the concentration changes in oxygenated, deoxygenated, and total hemoglobin/myoglobin in local skin and skeletal muscle. These measurements were simultaneously performed during the 10-min noncooling, 30-min cooling (cooling pad temperature; 0, 10, or 20°C), and 60-min recovery periods. Under all cooling conditions, skin and intramuscular temperatures decreased during cooling (P < 0.01) and began to increase after the cooling pad was removed. However, these values did not return to baseline values during the recovery period (P < 0.01). Moreover, tissue temperatures tended to show lower values during cooling at lower cooling temperatures. All hemoglobin/myoglobin concentrations also showed a concomitant significant decrease during cooling under three cooling conditions (P < 0.01); the oxygenated and total hemoglobin/myoglobin concentrations did not return to the exact values before cooling during the recovery period. This study suggested that the rate of decrease in tissue temperature depends on the cooling temperature and the effects of cooling on tissue temperatures and circulation tend to be maintained during 60 min post-cooling period despite the cooling temperature.

Keywords

Tissue temperature Peripheral circulation Cryotherapy Near-infrared spectroscopy 

References

  1. Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D (2004) The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Am J Sports Med 32:251–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chance B, Dait MT, Zhang C, Hamaoka T, Hagerman F (1992) Recovery from exercise-induced desaturation in the quadriceps muscles of elite competitive rowers. Am J Physiol 262(Cell Physiol. 31):C766–C775PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Curl WW, Smith BP, Marr A, Rosencrance E, Holden M, Smith TL (1997) The effect of contusion and cryotherapy on skeletal muscle microcirculation. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 37:279–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Daanen HA, Van de Linde FJ, Romet TT, Ducharme MB (1997) The effect of body temperature on the hunting response of the middle finger skin temperature. Eur J Appl Physiol 76:538–543CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. DeLorey DS, Shaw CN, Shoemaker JK, Kowalchuk JM, Paterson DH (2004) The effect of hypoxia on pulmonary O2 uptake, leg blood flow and muscle deoxygenation during single-leg knee-extension exercise. Exp Physiol 89:293–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dolan MG, Thornton RM, Fish DR, Mendel FC (1997) Effects of cold water immersion on edema formation after blunt injury to the hind limbs of rats. J Athl Train 32:233–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Elwell CE (1995) A practical users guide to near infrared spectroscopy. Hamamatsu Photonics KK, London, pp 1–155Google Scholar
  8. Enwemeka CS, Allen C, Avila P, Bina J, Konrade J, Munns S (2002) Soft tissue thermodynamics before, during, and after cold pack therapy. Med Sci Sports Exerc 34:45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fox RH, Wyatt HT (1962) Cold-induced vasodilatation in various areas of the body surface of man. J Physiol (Lond) 162:289–297Google Scholar
  10. Hamaoka T, Iwane H, Shimomitsu T, Katsumura T, Murase N, Nishio S, Osada T, Kurosawa Y, Chance B (1996) Noninvasive measures of oxidative metabolism on working human muscles by near-infrared spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol 81:1410–1417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hurme T, Rantanen J, Kalimo H (1993) Effects of early cryotherapy in experimental skeletal muscle injury. Scand Med Sci Sports 3:46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jutte LS, Merrick MA, Ingersoll CD, Edwards JE (2001) The relationship between intramuscular temperature, skin temperature, and adipose thickness during cryotherapy and rewarming. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 82:845–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kanlayanaphotporn R, Janwantanakul P (2005) Comparison of skin surface temperature during the application of various cryotherapy modalities. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 86:1411–1415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Merrick MA, Rankin JM, Andres FA, Hinman CL (1999) A preliminary examination of cryotherapy and secondary injury in skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:1516–1521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Merrick MA, Knight KL, Ingersoll CD, Potteiger JA (1993) The effects of ice and compression wraps on intramuscular temperatures at various depths. J Athl Train 28:236–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Myrer JW, Measom G, Fellingham GW (1998) Temperature changes in the human leg during and after two methods of cryotherapy. J Athl Train 33:25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Myrer JW, Myrer KA, Measom GJ, Fellingham GW, Evers SL (2001) Muscle temperature is affected by overlying adipose when cryotherapy is administered. J Athl Train 36:32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Quaresima V, Lepanto R, Ferrari M (2003) The use of near infrared spectroscopy in sports medicine. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 43:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Sendowski I, Savourey G, Launay JC, Besnard Y, Cottet-Emard JM, Pequignot JM, Bittel J (2000) Sympathetic stimulation induced by hand cooling alters cold-induced vasodilatation in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:303–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Shepherd JT, Rusch NJ, Vanhoutte PM (1983) Effect of cold on the blood vessel wall. Gen Pharmacol 14:61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Swenson C, Swärd L, Karlsson J (1996) Cryotherapy in sports medicine. Scand J Med Sci Sports 6:193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Taber C, Contryman K, Fahrenbruch J, LaCount K, Cornwall MW (1992) Measurement of reactive vasodilation during cold gel pack application to nontraumatized ankles. Phys Ther 72:294–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Thorlacius H, Vollmar B, Westermann S, Torkvist L, Menger MD (1998) Effects of local cooling on microvascular hemodynamics and leukocyte adhesion in the striated muscle of hamsters. J Trauma 45:715–719PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thorsson O, Lilja B, Ahlgren L, Hemdal B, Westlin N (1985) The effect of local cold application on intramuscular blood flow at rest and after running. Med Sci Sports Exerc 17:710–713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Van der Zee P, Cope M, Arridge SR, Essenpreis M, Potter LA, Edwards AD, Wyatt JS, McCormick DC, Roth SC, Reynolds EO, Delpy DT (1992) Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant as a function of inter optode spacing. Adv Exp Med Biol 316:143–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Yanagisawa O, Kudo H, Takahashi N, Yoshioka H (2004) Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of cooling on blood flow and oedema in skeletal muscles after exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 91:737–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Zemke JE, Andersen JC, Guion WK, McMillan J, Joyner AB (1998) Intramuscular temperature responses in the human leg to two forms of cryotherapy: ice massage and ice bag. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 27:301–307PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Osamu Yanagisawa
    • 1
  • Toshiyuki Homma
    • 1
  • Toru Okuwaki
    • 2
  • Daisuke Shimao
    • 3
  • Hideyuki Takahashi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sports SciencesJapan Institute of Sports SciencesTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Sports MedicineJapan Institute of Sports SciencesTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Radiological Sciences, School of Health SciencesIbaraki Prefectural University of Health SciencesIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations