European Journal of Applied Physiology

, Volume 95, Issue 2–3, pp 107–114 | Cite as

Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states

  • Kyoko Kuroda
  • Naohiko Inoue
  • Yuriko Ito
  • Kikue Kubota
  • Akio Sugimoto
  • Takami Kakuda
  • Tohru FushikiEmail author
Original Article


We investigated the effects of the odor of jasmine tea on autonomic nerve activity and mood states in a total of 24 healthy volunteers. We used the odor of jasmine tea at the lowest concentration that could be detected by each subject but that did not elicit any psychological effects. R–R intervals and the POMS test were measured before and after inhalation of the odors for 5 min. Both jasmine tea and lavender odors at perceived similar intensity caused significant decreases in heart rate and significant increases in spectral integrated values at high-frequency component in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). In the POMS tests, these odors produced calm and vigorous mood states. We also examined the effects of (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its major odor components, at the same concentration as in the tea, and (S)-(+)-linalool. Only (R)-(−)-linalool elicited a significant decrease in heart rate (P < 0.05) and an increase in high-frequency component in comparison with the controls, and produced calm and vigorous mood states. Thus, the low intensity of jasmine tea odor has sedative effects on both autonomic nerve activity and mood states, and (R)-(−)-linalool, one of its components, can mimic these effects.


Jasmine tea (R)-(−)-linalool Odor Autonomic nervous activity Mood states 


  1. Alaoui-Ismaili O, Vernet-Maury E, Dittmar A, Delhomme G, Chanel J (1997) Odor hedonics: connection with emotional response estimated by autonomic parameters. Chem Senses 22:237–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brauchli P, Ruegg PB, Etzweiler F, Zeier H (1995) Electrocortical and autonomic alteration by administration of a pleasant and an unpleasant odor. Chem Senses 20:505–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown TE, Beightol LA, Koh J, Eckberg DL (1993) Important influence of respiration on human R-R interval power spectra is largely ignored. J Appl Physiol 75:2310–2317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Buchbauer G (1996) Methods in aromatherapy research. Perf Flav 21:31–36Google Scholar
  5. Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L (1994) Aromatherapy-use of fragrances and essential oils as medicaments. Flav Fragr J 9:217–222Google Scholar
  6. Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jager W, Dietrich H, Plank C (1991) Aromatherapy: evidence for sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Z Naturforsch 46:1067–1072Google Scholar
  7. Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jager W, Plank C, Dietrich H (1993) Fragrance compounds and essential oils with sedative effects upon inhalation. J Pharm Sci 82:660–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chen J (1992) The effects of Chinese tea on the occurrence of esophageal tumors induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine in rats. Prev Med 21:385–391CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Doty RL (2001) Olfaction. Annu Rev Psychol 52:423–452CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ehrlichman H, Kuhl SB, Zhu J, Warrenburg S (1997) Startle reflex modulation by pleasant and unpleasant odors in a between-subjects design. Psychophysiology 34:726–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Elisabetsky EJ, Souza DO (1995) Effects of Linalool on glutamatergic system in the rat cerebral cortex. Neurochem Res 20:461–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hardy M, Kirk-Smith MD, Stretch DD (1995) Replacement of drug treatment for insomnia by ambient odour. Lancet 346:701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heuberger E, Hongratanaworakit T, Bohm C, Weber R, Buchbauer G (2001) Effects of chiral fragrances on human autonomic nervous system parameters and self-evaluation. Chem Senses 26:281–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ho CT, Chen Q, Shi H, Zhang KQ, Rosen RT (1992) Antioxidative effect of polyphenol extract prepared from various Chinese teas. Prev Med 21:520–525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Inoue N, Kuroda K, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T, Fushiki T (2003) Different autonomic nervous responses according to preference for the odor of jasmine tea. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:1206–1214CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ito Y, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T, Kubota K (2002) Identification of potent odorants in Chinese jasmine green tea scented with flowers of Jasminum sambac. J Agric Food Chem 50:4878–4884CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jager W, Mayer M, Platzer P, Reznicek G, Dietrich H, Buchbauer G (2000) Stereoselective metabolism of the monoterpene carvone by rat and human liver microsomes. J Pharm Pharmacol 52:191–197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Jager W, Mayer M, Reznicek G, Buchbauer G (2001) Percutaneous absorption of the monoterpene carvone: implication of stereoselective metabolism on blood levels. J Pharm Pharmacol 53:637–642CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Jellinek JS (1997) Psychodynamic odor effects and their mechanisms. Cosmet Toilet 112:61–71Google Scholar
  20. Kada T, Kaneko K, Matsuzaki S, Matsuzaki T, Hara Y (1985) Detection and chemical identification of natural bio-antimutagens. A case of the green tea factor. Mutat Res 150:127–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kubota M, Ikemoto T, Komaki R, Inui M (1992) Proceedings of the 12th International Congress on Flavours, Fragrances and Essential Oils, Vienna 4–8 October, 1992. Austrian Associaton of Flavour and Fragrance Industry, Vienna, pp 456–81Google Scholar
  22. Laska M, Liesen A, Teubner P (1999) Enantioselectivity of odor perception in squirrel monkeys and humans. Am J Physiol 277:R1098–R1103Google Scholar
  23. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S (1997a) A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 58:183–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S (1997b) Correlation of the chemical profiles of essential oil mixes with their relaxant and stimulant properties in man and smooth muscle preparations in vitro. In: Franz C, Mathe CA, Buchbauer G (eds) Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Essential Oils, Vienna, Austria, 8–11 September. Alured Publishing, Carol Stream, pp 24–28Google Scholar
  25. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S (1999) Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller). Phytother Res 13:540–542CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lorig TS (1989) Human EEG and odor response. Prog Neurobiol 33:387–398CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Moritani T, Hayashi T, Shinohara M, Mimasa F, Shibata M (1993) Comparison of sympatho-vagal function among diabetic patients, normal controls and endurance athletes by heart rate spectral analysis. J Sports Med Sci 7:31–39Google Scholar
  28. Moritani T, Hayashi T, Shinohara M, Mimasa F, Masuda I, Nakao K (1995) Sympatho-vagal activities of NIDDM patients during exercise as determined by heart rate spectral analysis. In: Kawamori R, Vranic M, Horton ES, Kubota M (eds) Glucose fluxes, exercise and diabetes. Smith-Gordon, London, pp 91–96Google Scholar
  29. Nagai M, Wada M, Usui N, Tanaka A, Hasebe Y (2000) Pleasant odors attenuate the blood pressure increase during rhythmic handgrip in humans. Neurosci Lett 289:227–229CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Novak V, Novak P, de Champlain JC, le Blanc AR, Martin R, Nadeau R (1993) Influence of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure fluctuations. J Appl Physiol 74:617–626Google Scholar
  31. Saeki Y (2000) The effect of foot-bath with or without the essential oil of lavender on the autonomic nervous system: a randomized trial. Complement Ther Med 8:2–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Schwartz RK (1979) Olfaction and muscle activity: an EMG pilot study. Am J Occup Ther 33:185–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Suzuki M, Aoki T (1994) Effects of volatile compounds from leaf oil on blood pressure after exercising. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 40:1243–1250Google Scholar
  34. Torii S, Fukuda H, Kanemoto H, Miyanchi R, Hamauzu Y, Kawasaki M (1988) Contingent negative variation (CNV) and the psychological effects of odour. In: Van Toller S, Dodd GH (eds) Perfumery—the psychology and biology of fragrance. Chapman& Hall, London, pp 107–120Google Scholar
  35. Tsuchiya T, Tanida M, Uenoyama S, Nakayama Y (1992) Effects of olfactory stimulation with jasmine and its component chemicals on the duration of pentobarbital-induced sleep in mice. Life Sci 50:1097–1102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Van Toller S, Behan J, Howells P, Kendal-Reed M, Richardson A (1993) An analysis of spontaneous human cortical EEG activity to odours. Chem Senses 18:1–16Google Scholar
  37. Wang ZY, Das M, Bickers DR, Mukhtar H (1988) Interaction of epicatechins derived from green tea with rat hepatic cytochrome P-450. Drug Metab Dispos 16:98–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Yang TT, Koo MW (1997) Hypocholesterolemic effects of Chinese tea. Pharmacol Res 35:505–512CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Yokoyama K, Araki S (1994) POMS Japanese manual (in Japanese). Kaneko Syoboh (Tokyo)Google Scholar
  40. Yoshino K, Hara Y, Sano M, Tomita I (1994) Antioxidative effects of black tea theaflavins and thearubigin on lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenates induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Biol Pharm Bull 17:146–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang A, Zhu QY, Luk YS, Ho KY, Fung KP, Chen ZY (1997) Inhibitory effects of jasmine green tea epicatechin isomers on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells. Life Sci 61:383–394CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyoko Kuroda
    • 1
  • Naohiko Inoue
    • 1
  • Yuriko Ito
    • 2
  • Kikue Kubota
    • 2
  • Akio Sugimoto
    • 3
  • Takami Kakuda
    • 3
  • Tohru Fushiki
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Nutrition Chemistry, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Food ChemistryOchanomizu UniversityTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Central Research InstituteItoen LtdShizuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations